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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2015, Article ID 750846, 7 pages
Research Article

Effects of Sulfurization Pressure on the Conversion Efficiency of Cosputtered Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film Solar Cells

1SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440746, Republic of Korea
2Department of Information Display, Sun Moon University, Asan 336708, Republic of Korea
3School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440746, Republic of Korea

Received 2 July 2015; Revised 21 September 2015; Accepted 21 October 2015

Academic Editor: Thomas Unold

Copyright © 2015 Arun Khalkar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

Sulfurization procedure: The CZTS as deposited film was loaded in to the quarts tube furnace and evacuated for 10 min with the help of rotary pump. After evacuation, atmospheric pressure was achieved by passing H2S/N2 (5/95%) gas with the flow rate of 50 sccm. The gas flow rate was controlled by MFC. The pressure inside the quarts tube was controlled by auto pressure controller (APC). After achieving atmospheric pressure inside the tube, temperature was started with 10°C/min increasing rate. As temperature reached up to 350°C, it was saturated for next 30 min to perform soft annealing (S.A.). After completing S.A. time, pressure was maintained to 780 Torr by APC. Furthermore, temperature was increased up to 550°C and saturated for next one hour. After completing one hour annealing, the sample was allowed to cool down naturally. This procedure was carried out for the sample sulfurized at 780 Torr pressure.

For the next samples, same sulfurization procedure was carried out up to S.A. thereafter; pressures were changed to 760, 730, 700, and 670 Torr with the help of APC. Soft annealing for all samples was carried out at atmospheric pressure at 350°C for 30 min. Finally the CZTS films were prepared by sulfurization pressure variation and further used for the CZTS solar cells fabrication.

  1. Supplementary Material