Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2016, Article ID 5186762, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5186762
Research Article

An Efficient Metal-Free Hydrophilic Carbon as a Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

1Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 20 November 2015; Accepted 22 February 2016

Academic Editor: Prakash Basnyat

Copyright © 2016 Mojgan Kouhnavard et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. M. Chapin, C. S. Fuller, and G. L. Pearson, “A new silicon p-n junction photocell for converting solar radiation into electrical power,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 676–680, 1954. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 45, no. 24–28, pp. L638–L640, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Poudel and Q. Qiao, “Carbon nanostructure counter electrodes for low cost and stable dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Energy, vol. 4, pp. 157–175, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. O’Regan and M. Grätzel, “A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films,” Nature, vol. 353, no. 6346, pp. 737–740, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Chen, K. Li, Y. Luo et al., “Flexible carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Carbon, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 2704–2708, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. L. Chen, J. Liu, J. B. Zhang, X. W. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, and Y. Lin, “Low temperature fabrication of flexible carbon counter electrode on ITO-PEN for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Chinese Chemical Letters, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1137–1140, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Ito, N.-L. C. Ha, G. Rothenberger et al., “High-efficiency (7.2%) flexible dye-sensitized solar cells with Ti-metal substrate for nanocrystalline-TiO2 photoanode,” Chemical Communications, no. 38, pp. 4004–4006, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. Kavan, J. H. Yum, and M. Grätzel, “Optically transparent cathode for dye-sensitized solar cells based on graphene nanoplatelets,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 165–172, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Sibiński, M. Jakubowska, K. Znajdek, M. Słoma, and B. Guzowski, “Carbon nanotube transparent conductive layers for solar cells applications,” Optica Applicata, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 375–381, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Yella, H.-W. Lee, H. N. Tsao et al., “Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells with cobalt (II/III)-based redox electrolyte exceed 12 percent efficiency,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6056, pp. 629–634, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Grätzel, “Dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 145–153, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Fakharuddin, R. Jose, T. M. Brown, F. Fabregat-Santiago, and J. Bisquert, “A perspective on the production of dye-sensitized solar modules,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 3952–3981, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Olsen, G. Hagen, and S. Eric Lindquist, “Dissolution of platinum in methoxy propionitrile containing LiI/I2,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 267–273, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. E. Bourdo and T. Viswanathan, “Graphite/Polyaniline (GP) composites: synthesis and characterization,” Carbon, vol. 43, no. 14, pp. 2983–2988, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. X. Li, Y. S. Wei, Q. Q. Jin, and T. Z. Ren, “Expanded graphite/carbon nanotube as counter electrode for DSSCs,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 311-313, pp. 1246–1249, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Aitola, J. Halme, N. Halonen et al., “Comparison of dye solar cell counter electrodes based on different carbon nanostructures,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 22, pp. 8125–8134, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. D. Roy-Mayhew, D. J. Bozym, C. Punckt, and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized graphene as a catalytic counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 6203–6211, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Wu, X. Lin, T. Wang, J. Qiu, and T. Ma, “Low-cost dye-sensitized solar cell based on nine kinds of carbon counter electrodes,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 2308–2315, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. G. Nam, Y. J. Park, B. S. Kim, and J. S. Lee, “Enhancement of the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell by utilizing carbon nanotube counter electrode,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 148–150, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Kouhnavard, N. A. Ludin, B. V. Ghaffari, K. Sopian, and S. Ikeda, “Carbonaceous materials and their advances as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells: challenges and prospects,” ChemSusChem, vol. 8, pp. 1510–1533, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  21. G. Veerappan, K. Bojan, and S.-W. Rhee, “Sub-micrometer-sized graphite as a conducting and catalytic counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 857–862, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Ikeda, S. Kawasaki, Y. Hayashi et al., “Preparation of hydrophilic nano-carbon particles by electrolysis and their environmental applications,” ECS Meeting Abstracts, abstract MA2012-02 3523, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  23. S. Ikeda, S. Kawasaki, A. Nobumoto et al., “Preparation and applications of hydrophilic nano-carbon particles,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 832, pp. 767–772, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Kouhnavard, N. A. Ludin, B. V. Ghaffari, S. Ikeda, K. Sopian, and M. Miyake, “Hydrophilic carbon/TiO2 colloid composite: a potential counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 259–266, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. Ceramic Industry, Advanced Forming: Advances in Tape Casting Technology, 2001.
  26. F. Padinger, C. J. Brabec, T. Fromherz, J. C. Hummelen, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Fabrication of large area photovoltaic devices containing various blends of polymer and fullerene derivatives by using the doctor blade technique,” Opto-Electronics Review, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 280–283, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. Papageorgiou, W. F. Maier, and M. Grätzel, “An iodine/triiodide reduction electrocatalyst for aqueous and organic media,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 876–884, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Mukherjee, B. Ramalingam, L. Griggs et al., “Ultrafine sputter-deposited Pt nanoparticles for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells: Impact of nanoparticle size, crystallinity and surface coverage on catalytic activity,” Nanotechnology, vol. 23, no. 48, Article ID 485405, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. N. Murakami and M. Grätzel, “Counter electrodes for DSC: application of functional materials as catalysts,” Inorganica Chimica Acta, vol. 361, no. 3, pp. 572–580, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. H. Huh, S.-H. Choi, and H.-M. Ju, “Thickness-dependent solar power conversion efficiencies of catalytic graphene oxide films in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. S352–S355, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. X. Fang, T. Ma, G. Guan, M. Akiyama, T. Kida, and E. Abe, “Effect of the thickness of the Pt film coated on a counter electrode on the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 570, no. 2, pp. 257–263, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Imoto, K. Takahashi, T. Yamaguchi, T. Komura, J.-I. Nakamura, and K. Murata, “High-performance carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 459–469, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Joshi, L. Zhang, Q. Chen, D. Galipeau, H. Fong, and Q. Qiao, “Electrospun carbon nanofibers as low-cost counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 3572–3577, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus