Table 1: Direct cross-coupling of benzene with 4-chlorotoluene under UV light irradiation (see Scheme 3 and Figure 2).

EntryIrradiation time [h]Conversion [%]

1428
2840
31252
41660
52067
62475
72445
8240

General reaction conditions: 4-chlorotoluene (0.1 mmol, 1 equiv.), benzene (11.24 mmol, 112.4 equiv.), room temperature (air cooling), N2 atmosphere (balloon pressure), and UV light irradiation (254 nm, 10 mW·cm−2). Air atmosphere. Conditions changed from irradiating to heating to 100°C.