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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2017, Article ID 7190801, 9 pages
Research Article

Effect of Annealing Process on CH3NH3PbI3-XClX Film Morphology of Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells with Optimal Compact TiO2 Layer

Research Center for Sensor Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory for Sensor, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Modern Measurement and Control Technology, School of Applied Sciences, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Jianxiangqiao Campus, Beijing 100101, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Xiaoping Zou; moc.361@4102uozpx

Received 23 May 2017; Revised 4 August 2017; Accepted 13 August 2017; Published 8 November 2017

Academic Editor: Matthias Auf der Maur

Copyright © 2017 Dan Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The morphology of compact TiO2 film used as an electron-selective layer and perovskite film used as a light absorption layer in planar perovskite solar cells has a significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of the devices. In this paper, the spin coating speed of the compact TiO2 is investigated in order to get a high-quality film and the compact TiO2 film exhibits pinhole- and crack-free films treated by 2000 rpm for 60 s. Furthermore, the effect of annealing process, including annealing temperature and annealing program, on CH3NH3PbI3-XClX film morphology is studied. At the optimal annealing temperature of 100°C, the CH3NH3PbI3-XClX morphology fabricated by multistep slow annealing method has smaller grain boundaries and holes than that prepared by one-step direct annealing method, which results in the reduction of grain boundary recombination and the increase of Voc. With all optimal procedures, a planar fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate/compact TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-XClX/Spiro-MeOTAD/Au cell is prepared for an active area of 0.1 cm2. It has achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.64%, which is 80.3% higher than the reference cell (8.12% PCE) without optimal perovskite layer. We anticipate that the annealing process with optimal compact TiO2 layer would possibly become a promising method for future industrialization of planar perovskite solar cells.