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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2017, Article ID 7268641, 17 pages
Research Article

Chelated Nitrogen-Sulphur-Codoped TiO2: Synthesis, Characterization, Mechanistic, and UV/Visible Photocatalytic Studies

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3A7
2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, University Campus, P.O. Box 814, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan

Correspondence should be addressed to Hayat Khan; ac.ltmylop@nahk.tayah

Received 3 April 2017; Accepted 12 June 2017; Published 17 August 2017

Academic Editor: Juan M. Coronado

Copyright © 2017 Hayat Khan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study presents in detail the physicochemical, photoluminescent, and photocatalytic properties of carboxylic acid chelated nitrogen-sulphur-codoped TiO2. From the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study, it was revealed that the formate group formed bidentate bridging linkage while the acetate group coordinated in a bidentate chelating mode with a titanium precursor. In compliance with X-ray diffraction data, the anatase to rutile transformation temperature was extended due to carboxylic acid chelation and NS codoping. Raman analysis indicated four Raman peaks at 146, 392, 512, and 632 cm−1 for the precalcined chelated TiO2; on incorporation with NS dopants, an increase in Raman intensity for these peaks was recorded, indicating the structure stability of the anatase phase. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study revealed the presence of anionic doping of nitrogen and cationic doping of sulphur in the lattice of TiO2. When evaluating the UV-visible photodegradation rate of 4-chlorophenol, the modified TiO2 (NS0.06-TFA) showed the highest photocatalytic activity. In connection with the activity tests, several scavenger agents were employed to elucidate the significance of the different reactive oxidizing species during the photocatalytic process. Moreover, the transfer pathways of photogenerated carriers and the photocatalytic reaction mechanism of modified TiO2 were also explained in detail.