Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2009, Article ID 274380, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/274380
Clinical Study

Oral Midazolam Premedication for Children Undergoing General Anaesthesia for Dental Care

1Division of Anesthesiology, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, P.O. Box 60169, Riyadh 11545, Saudi Arabia
2Division of Pediatric Dentistry, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, P.O. Box 60169, Riyadh 11545, Saudi Arabia

Received 7 November 2008; Revised 30 January 2009; Accepted 5 March 2009

Academic Editor: Deepak Kamat

Copyright © 2009 Saad A. Sheta and Maha AlSarheed. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. L. Creedon and M. Dock, “Pharmacological management of patient behavior,” in Dentistry for the Children and Adolescent, R. E. McDonald and D. R. Avery, Eds., pp. 285–311, CV Mosby, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 8th edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  2. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, “Guidelines for the elective use of conscious sedation, deep sedation and general anaesthesia in pediatric dental patients,” Pediatric Dental Journal, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 111–149, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  3. K. Connors and T. E. Terndrup, “Nasal vs oral midazolam for sedation,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1074–1079, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. D. A. Haas, “Oral and inhalation conscious sedation,” Dental clinics of North America, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 341–359, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  5. J. W. Dundee, N. J. Halliday, K. W. Harper, and R. N. Brogden, “Midazolam. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use,” Drugs, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 519–543, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  6. S. N. Frankl, F. R. Shiere, and H. R. Fogels, “Should the parents remain with the child in the dental operatory?,” Journal of Dentistry for Children, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 150–163, 1962. View at Google Scholar
  7. K. Kirov, C. Motamed, S.-K. Ndoko, and G. Dhonneur, “TOF count at corrugator supercilii reflects abdominal muscles relaxation better than at adductor pollicis,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 611–614, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. S. Malviya, T. Voepel-Lewis, A. R. Tait, S. Merkel, K. Tremper, and N. Naughton, “Depth of sedation in children undergoing computed tomography: validity and reliability of the University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS),” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 241–245, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. A. T. Watson and A. Visram, “Children's preoperative anxiety and postoperative behaviour,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 188–204, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. M. A. Lumley, B. G. Melamed, and L. A. Abeles, “Predicting children's presurgical anxiety and subsequent behavior changes,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 481–497, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. Z. N. Kain, A. A. Caldwell-Andrews, D. M. Krivutza, M. E. Weinberg, S.-M. Wang, and D. Gaal, “Trends in the practice of parental presence during induction of anesthesia and the use of preoperative sedative premedication in the United States, 1995–2002: results of a follow-up national survey,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 1252–1259, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. G. A. Finley, S. H. Stewart, S. Buffett-Jerrott, K. D. Wright, and D. Millington, “High levels of impulsivity may contraindicate midazolam premedication in children,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  13. C. A. Pywell, Y.-J. Hung, and J. Nagelhout, “Oral midazolam versus meperidine, atropine, and diazepam: a comparison of premedicants in pediatric outpatients,” Journal of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 124–130, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  14. P. J. Alderson and J. Lerman, “Oral premedication for paediatric ambulatory anaesthesia: a comparison of midazolam and ketamine,” Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 221–226, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  15. D. Patel and G. Meakin, “Oral midazolam compared with diazepam-droperidol and trimeprazine as premedicants in children,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 287–293, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. K. K. Brosius and C. F. Bannister, “Midazolam premedication in children: a comparison of two oral dosage formulations on sedation score and plasma midazolam levels,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 392–395, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. C. J. Coté, I. T. Cohen, S. Suresh et al., “A comparison of three doses of a commercially prepared oral midazolam syrup in children,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. L. D. Mishra, G. K. Sinha, P. Bhaskar Rao, V. Sharma, K. Satya, and R. Gairola, “Injectable midazolam as oral premedicant in pediatric neurosurgery,” Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 193–198, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. L. H. Feld, J. B. Negus, and P. F. White, “Oral midazolam preanesthetic medication in pediatric outpatients,” Anesthesiology, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 831–834, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  20. R. S. Litman, J. A. Kottra, R. J. Berkowitz, and D. S. Ward, “Breathing patterns and levels of consciousness in children during administration of nitrous oxide after oral midazolam premedication,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1372–1377, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. C. O. McMillan, I. A. Spahr-Schopfer, N. Sikich, E. Hartley, and J. Lerman, “Premedication of children with oral midazolam,” Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 545–550, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  22. M. E. McCann and Z. N. Kain, “The management of preoperative anxiety in children: an update,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 98–105, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. M. F. Levine, I. A. Spahr-Schopfer, E. Hartley, J. Lerman, and B. MacPherson, “Oral midazolam premedication in children: the minimum time interval for separation from parents,” Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 726–729, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Kupietzky and M. I. Houpt, “Midazolam: a review of its use for conscious sedation of children,” Pediatric dentistry, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 237–241, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  25. R. G. Cox, U. Nemish, A. Ewen, and M.-J. Crowe, “Evidence-based clinical update: does premedication with oral midazolam lead to improved behavioural outcomes in children,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 1213–1219, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  26. J. G. Reves, R. J. Fragen, H. R. Vinik, and D. J. Greenblatt, “Midazolam: pharmacology and uses,” Anesthesiology, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 310–324, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. R. A. Veselis, R. A. Reinsel, R. Alagesan, R. Heino, and R. F. Bedford, “Cognitive mechanism of amnesia produced by midazolam,” Anesthesiology, vol. 73, no. 6, p. A189, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  28. V. C. Magni, R. A. Frost, J. W. C. Leung, and P. B. Cotton, “A randomized comparison of midazolam and diazepam for sedation in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 1095–1101, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. T. D. Sievers, J. D. Yee, M. E. Foley, P. J. Blanding, and C. B. Berde, “Midazolam for conscious sedation during pediatric oncology procedures: safety and recovery parameters,” Pediatrics, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 1172–1179, 1991. View at Google Scholar