Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2010, Article ID 474838, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/474838
Review Article

Pain in Children: Assessment and Nonpharmacological Management

Division of Paediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8

Received 30 January 2010; Accepted 4 May 2010

Academic Editor: Keira Mason

Copyright © 2010 Rasha Srouji et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [33 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • A.M. Ullan, E. Fernández, M. Badia, F. Lorente, F. Malmierca, and I. Zapatero, “Opiniones y actitudes del personal sanitario hacia los sistemas de evaluación y tratamiento del dolor,” Anales de Pediatría, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Liza-Marie Johnson, Jennifer M. Snaman, Margaret C. Cupit, and Justin N. Baker, “End-of-Life Care for Hospitalized Children,” Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 835–854, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Camila Amaral Borghi, Lisabelle Mariano Rossato, Elaine Buchhorn Cintra Damiao, Danila Maria Batista Guedes, Ellen Maria Reimberg da Silva, Silvia Maria de Macedo Barbosa, and Rita Tiziana Polastrini, “Living with pain: the experience of children and adolescents in palliative care,” Revista Da Escola De Enfermagem Da Usp, vol. 48, pp. 67–73, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Harsh Vardhan Gupta, Vivek Vardhan Gupta, Amanlo Kaur, Ruku Singla, Neha Chitkara, Krushnan V Bajaj, and H C L Rawat, “Comparison between the Analgesic Effect of two Techniques on the Level of Pain Perception During venipuncture in Children up to 7 Years of Age: A Quasi-Experimental Study.,” Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR, vol. 8, no. 8, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chris Brown, Maribeth B. Chitkara, Jack M. Percelay, James M. Betts, Maribeth B. Chitkara, Jennifer A. Jewell, Claudia K. Preuschoff, Daniel A. Rauch, and Richard A. Salerno, “Child Life Services,” Pediatrics, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. E1471–E1478, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • C. Lobete Prieto, C. Rey Galán, and A.H. Kiza, “Comparación de los conocimientos sobre dolor infantil en 2 poblaciones de profesionales de enfermería,” Anales de Pediatría, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • B. Messerer, B. Krauss-Stoisser, and B. Urlesberger, “Nichtmedikamentöse Maßnahmen sowie topische Analgetika und orale Zuckerstoffe im Schmerzmanagement,” Der Schmerz, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 31–42, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • C. O' Shea, and M. Davis, “An exploration of adolescents' perceptions of X-ray examinations,” Radiography, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sofia Bisogni, Chiara Dini, Nicole Olivini, Daniele Ciofi, Francesca Giusti, Simona Caprilli, José Rafael Gonzalez Lopez, and Filippo Festini, “Perception of venipuncture pain in children suffering from chronic diseases.,” BMC research notes, vol. 7, pp. 735, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • M. Dekoven, T. Wisniewski, S. Karkare, L. A. Kelley, D. L. Cooper, H. Pham, J. Powers, and W. C. Lee, “Understanding the experience of caring for children with haemophilia: cross-sectional study of caregivers in the United States,” Haemophilia, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • John A Cheek, Simon S Craig, Robert W Seith, and Adam West, “Urine collection in young children,” Emergency Medicine Australasia, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Birsen Mutlu, and Serap Balcı, “Effects of balloon inflation and cough trick methods on easing pain in children during the drawing of venous blood samples: A randomized controlled trial,” Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Svein-Denis Moutte, Christina Brudvik, and Tone Morken, “Physicians’ use of pain scale and treatment procedures among children and youth in emergency primary care - a cross sectional study,” BMC Emergency Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Soad A. Abdelmoniem, and Sara A. Mahmoud, “Comparative Evaluation of Passive, Active, and Passive-Active Distraction techniques on Pain Perception during Local Anesthesia Administration in Children,” Journal of Advanced Research, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Saowaphak Lapmahapaisan, Niramol Tantemsapya, Naiyana Aroonpruksakul, Wiriya Maisat, and Suwannee Suraseranivongse, “Efficacy of surgical transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative pain relief following abdominal surgery in pediatric patients,” Pediatric Anesthesia, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dörte Wolf, and Joachim Otto, “Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study,” International Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 2015, pp. 1–6, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Benoit Bailey, and Evelyne D. Trottier, “Managing Pediatric Pain in the Emergency Department,” Pediatric Drugs, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Diler Aydin, Nejla Canbulat Şahiner, and Esra Karaca Çiftçi, “Comparison of the effectiveness of three different methods in decreasing pain during venipuncture in children: ball squeezing, balloon inflating and distraction cards,” Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kirsten Nelson, Mary Adamek, and Charmaine Kleiber, “Relaxation Training and Postoperative Music Therapy for Adolescents Undergoing Spinal Fusion Surgery,” Pain Management Nursing, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Diler Aydin, and Nejla Canbulat Sahiner, “Effects of music therapy and distraction cards on pain relief during phlebotomy in children,” Applied Nursing Research, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. Monica Agoston, and Christine B. Sieberg, “Non-Pharmacologic Treatment of Pain,” Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ahmad Ismail, “The Challenges of Providing Effective Pain Management for Children in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit,” Pain Management Nursing, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shea Short, Gretchen Pace, and Christine Birnbaum, “Nonpharmacologic Techniques to Assist in Pediatric Pain Management,” Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Henny Suzana Mediani, Ravani Duggan, Rose Chapman, Alison Hutton, and Linda Shields, “An exploration of Indonesian nurses? perceptions of barriers to paediatric pain management,” Journal of Child Health Care, pp. 136749351771514, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Phyllis J. Mesko, and Aris Beoglos Eliades, “Using Pictures to Assess Pain Location in Children,” Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Virginia B. Young, “Effective Management of Pain and Anxiety for the Pediatric Patient in the Emergency Department,” Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Franz E Babl, Lisa Barrow, Shane George, Michael Zhang, Kaya Gardiner, Katherine J Lee, Andrew Davidson, Robert Berkowitz, Frank Sullivan, Emily Porrello, Kim Marie Dalziel, Mark T Mackay, Vicki Anderson, Ed Oakley, Sandy Hopper, Fiona Williams, Catherine Wilson, Amanda Williams, Stuart R Dalziel, Meredith L Borland, David W Herd, Amit Kochar, Jason Hort, Arjun Rao, John A Cheek, and Jeremy Furyk, “Bell's Palsy in Children (BellPIC): protocol for a multicentre, placebo-controlled randomized trial.,” BMC pediatrics, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 53, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Made Pande Lilik Lestari, Dessie Wanda, and Happy Hayati, “The Effectiveness of Distraction (Cartoon-Patterned Clothes and Bubble-Blowing) on Pain and Anxiety in Preschool Children during Venipuncture in the Emergency Department,” Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing, vol. 40, no. sup1, pp. 22–28, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ahmad Ismail, Paula Forgeron, Viola Polomeno, Huda Gharaibeh, and Denise Harrison, “Pain Management Practice and Guidelines in Jordanian Pediatric Intensive Care Units,” Pain Management Nursing, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yi-Chuan Hsieh, Su-Fen Cheng, Pei-Kwei Tsay, Wen-Jen Su, Yen-Hua Cho, and Chi-Wen Chen, “Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Strategies on Pain and Fear in School-aged Children Undergoing Intravenous Placement: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” Asian Nursing Research, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Edina T. Kholowa, Angela F. Chimwaza, Maureen D. Majamanda, and Alfred O. Maluwa, “Nurses? Knowledge and Attitudes towards Pain Management in Children Admitted in the Paediatric Department of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi,” Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, vol. 05, no. 06, pp. 46–59, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lammens F, Boons J, Michiels E, Beckers K, Laureyns G, Indesteege J, Indesteege F, Lemmens W, Lemkens N, Jans F, Jorissen M, and Lemkens P, “Grommet and adenoid pain evaluation (GRAPE) study,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 108, pp. 26–29, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Karen L.O. Burton, Angela M. Morrow, Brooke V. Beswick, and George P. Khut, “The Feasibility of Using the BrightHearts Biofeedback-Assisted Relaxation Application for the Management of Pediatric Procedural Pain: A Pilot Study,” Pain Practice, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar