Table 4: Means (standard deviations) for children’s reports of the frequency of their parents’ corporal punishment use in the last year.

Spank, slap, or hitGrab or shake
MotherFatherParent gender DaughterSonChild gender MotherFatherParent gender DaughterSonChild gender

China
Colombia
Italy
Jordan
Kenya
Philippines
Sweden
Thailand
U.S.A.


Note. Values are means, standard deviations, and F-tests from repeated measures analyses of variance with parent gender as the within-subjects factor and child gender as the between-subjects factor. Significant Parent Gender X Child Gender interactions for spanking, slapping, or hitting in Colombia, Italy, and the Philippines are described in the text. Frequency of corporal punishment was rated as 1 never, 2 less than once a month, 3 about once a month, 4 about once a week, and 5 almost every day.