Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2012, Article ID 129707, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/129707
Clinical Study

The Experience in Nicaragua: Childhood Leukemia in Low Income Countries—The Main Cause of Late Diagnosis May Be “Medical Delay”

1Pediatric Department, San Gerardo Hospital and University of Milano Bicocca, via Pergolesi 33, 20900 Monza (MB), Italy
2Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Department, Manuel de Jesus Rivera “La Mascota” Hospital, Managua, Nicaragua
3Pediatric Department, “Ospedali Riuniti”, Largo Barozzi 1, 24128 Bergamo (BG), Italy

Received 4 September 2011; Revised 2 November 2011; Accepted 11 November 2011

Academic Editor: Emmanuel Katsanis

Copyright © 2012 C. De Angelis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. J. R. L. Horner, M. Krapcho, N. Neyman et al., Eds., SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2006, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md, USA, 2009, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2006.
  2. S. C. Howard, M. Marinoni, L. Castillo et al., “Improving outcomes for children with cancer in low-income countries in Latin America: a report on the recent meetings of the Monza International School of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (MISPHO)-part I,” Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 364–369, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. H. Pui, J. T. Sandlund, D. Pei et al., “Improved outcome for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of Total Therapy Study XIIIB at St Jude Children's Research Hospital,” Blood, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 2690–2696, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. C. Howard, M. L. Metzger, J. A. Wilimas et al., “Childhood cancer epidemiology in low-income countries,” Cancer, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 461–472, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Masera, T. Eden, M. Schrappe et al., “Statement by members of the Ponte di Legno Group on the right of children to have full access to essential treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia,” Pediatr Blood Cancer, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 103–104, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. Dang-Tan, H. Trottier, L. S. Mery et al., “Delays in diagnosis and treatment among children and adolescents with cancer in Canada,” Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 468–474, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Dang-Tan, H. Trottier, L. S. Mery et al., “Determinants of delays in treatment initiation in children and adolescents diagnosed with leukemia or lymphoma in Canada,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 126, no. 8, pp. 1936–1943, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Fajardo-Gutiérrez, A. M. Sandoval-Mex, J. M. Mejía-Aranguré, M. E. Rendón-Macías, and M. D. C. Martínez-García, “Clinical and social factors that affect the time to diagnosis of Mexican children with cancer,” Medical and Pediatric Oncology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. E. Flores, D. L. Williams, and B. A. Bell, “Delay in the diagnosis of pediatric brain tumors,” American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 140, no. 7, pp. 684–686, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. E. Klein-Geltink, L. M. Pogany, R. D. Barr, M. L. Greenberg, and L. S. Mery, “Waiting times for cancer care in Canadian children: impact of distance, clinical, and demographic factors,” Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 318–327, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. Saha, S. Love, T. Eden, P. Micallef-Eynaud, and G. MacKinlay, “Determinants of symptom interval in childhood cancer,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 771–774, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Thulesius, J. Pola, and A. Hakansson, “Diagnostic delay in pediatric malignancies: a population-based study,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 873–876, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. E. Rodrigues and B. de Camargo, “Early diagnosis of childhood cancer: a team responsibility,” Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. O. James, S. O. Ajayi, O. A. Ogun, and R. E. Oladokun, “Factors influencing time to diagnosis of childhood cancer in Ibadan, Nigeria,” African Health Sciences, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 247–253, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. C. Stefan and F. Siemonsma, “Delay and causes of delay in the diagnosis of childhood cancer in Africa,” Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 80–85, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Masera, F. Baez, A. Biondi et al., “North-South twinning in paediatric haemato-oncology: the La Mascota programme, Nicaragua,” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9144, pp. 1923–1926, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Dang-Tan and E. L. Franco, “Diagnosis delays in childhood cancer: a review,” Cancer, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 703–713, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Factbook CW. banca dati, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nu.html.
  19. S. E. Forgie and J. L. Robinson, “Pediatric malignancies presenting as a possible infectious disease,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, p. 44, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. C. M. V. Robazzi, L. R. Silva, N. Mendonça, and J. H. S. Barreto, “Gastrointestinal manifestations as initial presentation of acute leukemias in children and adolescents,” Acta Gastroenterologica Latinoamericana, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 126–132, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  21. T. C. M. V. Robazzi, J. H. S. Barreto, L. R. Silva, M. B. Santiago, and N. Mendonça, “Osteoarticular manifestations as initial presentation of acute leukemias in children and adolescents in Bahia, Brazil,” Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 622–626, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. A. Potts and A. L. Rothman, “Clinical and laboratory features that distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses in endemic populations,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1328–1340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. S. Arora, T. Eden, and B. Pizer, “The problem of treatment abandonment in children from developing countries with cancer,” Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 941–946, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. L. Metzger, S. C. Howard, L. C. Fu et al., “Outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in resource-poor countries,” The Lancet, vol. 362, no. 9385, pp. 706–708, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Mostert, M. N. Sitaresmi, C. M. Gundy, V. Janes, Sutaryo, and A. J. P. Veerman, “Comparing childhood leukaemia treatment before and after the introduction of a parental education programme in Indonesia,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 20–25, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Mostert, M. N. Sitaresmi, C. M. Gundy, Sutaryo, and A. J. P. Veerman, “Influence of socioeconomic status on childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment in Indonesia,” Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. e1600–e1606, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus