Table 5: Basic characteristics of community-based comparison groups.

N Sample/settingAge (years)Comment

Brazil [12] 180Public school children in urban areas of the periphery of greater São Paulo.5–18Low income population. No chronic or acute illness 30 days prior to interview.

USA [17]5972All new enrollees in State Children’s Health Insurance Program in California.5–16Representative of low-income families. Chronic disease reported by parents in 574 children (asthma, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, diabetes etc.).

Finland [14]1033All Finnish primary school children in a city of 175.000 inhabitants.9-10

Norway [15]425Children in 5 junior high schools in 3 urban and 2 rural areas.13–15

United Kingdom [16]1034Children in 23 schools in South Wales8–18Mean age 12.6 years. Children with chronic disease excluded.

The Netherlands [7]148Children in 4 elementary schools, 4 high schools, and 1 vocational school in Amsterdam and surrounding region. 13–18Mean age 15.0 years. Sampling, stratified by geographic location and migrant and parental education in school. Chronic disease reported by parents in 25 children (asthma, congenital defect, skin disease, migraine, etc.).

Austria [8]1412Children from 22 schools in Vienna.8–12

Greece [9]645Representative sample of Greek school children.8–12

Spain [10]511Representative sample of school children in grades 4–11 in Tarragona.9–17Mean age 11.7 years.

Iran [6]848Children in 4 secondary and high schools in Tehran.Mean age 15.7 (±1.2)

Korea [13]1425Children in 5 elementary, 5 middle, and 4 high schools within 2 small, 2 metropolitan and 1 capital city.8–18Chronic disease reported by parents in 50 children.

Japan [5]922Children from 1 elementary, 1 middle, and 1 high school in Tokyo.6–18

Australia [11]2890Children from 13 secondary schools in the Barwon South West region of Victoria.11–18Mean age 14.6 years.