Table 3: Drug options for initial therapy for hypertension in children.

Class of drugsPatients' characteristics

DiureticsVolume-overload, low plasma renin activity, black race, oral contraceptive therapy, and congestive heart failure.
Angiotensin converting inhibitors/angiotensin
receptor blockers
High plasma renin activity, unilateral renovascular hypertension, renal insufficiency, glomerular proteinuria, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, gout, and hyperlipidemia.
Calcium channel blockersEmergency hypertension, black race, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive lung disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, gout, hyperlipidemia, and peripheral vascular disease.
Beta-adrenergic antagonistsContracted intravascular volume, high plasma renin activity, attention deficit disorder, hyperdynamic circulation, anxiety, migraine, steroid intake, hyperthyroidism, and neuroadrenergic tumors.