Table 2: Studies of non-traffic low-speed vehicle runovers (LSVRO) and driveway runovers (DR) where the study outcome is mortality.

StudyStudy periodCountryStudy designaType of incidentbAge of
Study factorscMain findings

Annual Report
63% were 1-2 years; 58% were males
Indigenous children were overrepresented
54% of cases the driver was the child’s parent
29% were 4WD/SUV, 21% Sedans
57% of cases the vehicle was reversing
67% occurred in driveway and in the residential premises
58% of cases carer was unaware how the child reached near vehicle

Stark et al. [14]1995–2010USCSLSVRO<4 years
31 Mean age 1.33 ± 0.23 years
67% were female, 67% Hispanics
67% drivers were family members or 33% acquaintance; 50% were cars; 50% SUV, van, or trucks
19% (6 cases) reversing vehicle
All cases occurred in own driveway

Baker and White (Child and Youth Mortality Review Committee)
2002–2008NZCSLSVRO28 days–5 years27 56% of cases between 12–23 months of age
70% were boys (19 boys and 8 girls)
48% were Maoris (14.8 per 100,000), 26% Pacific children (20.6 per 100,000)
More deaths (~9) occurred in area with higher levels of deprivation (NZ Deprivation Index decile)
70% occurred on or around driveway,
37% of cases involved 4WD/SUV, 30% involved van and truck
18% cars, 63% reversing vehicle
88% were known drivers; 33% were by a father
37% of cases occurred between 5–7 pm, 48% cases occurred on a Saturday or Sunday

Griffin et al. [25]2004–2008AustraliaCSLSVRO<5 years 15 87% were boys (12 boys and 3 girls)
86% of cases aged <5 years (4.8 per 100,000)
87% of cases occurred on private property
47% of cases involved 4WD vehicles
60% of cases involved a reversing vehicle
No SES differences, cases predominantly occurred in rural areas

Byard and Jensen [26]2000–2006AustraliaCSDR1–3 years6 Mean age 16.8 months, male : female ratio 1 : 1
83% were reversing vehicle
66% in home driveway
66% of cases involved sedans

CCYPCG [27] 2004-2005AustraliaCSLSVRO<5 years14 78% of cases aged 1–4 years
79% of cases occurred at family member’s home
36% of cases involved 4WD vehicles
50% of cases involved a reversing vehicle
50% of cases occurred in rural or regional location

NHTSA [28]
1998–2002USCSLSVRO≤19 years297 68% were children aged 0–2 years
45% incidents occurred in driveways
28% were cars, 17% pick-up trucks, 13% vans
29% were parents

QISU [29]1994–2000AustraliaCSLSVRO<5 years84 40% occurred in driveways
50% were aged 1 year. M : F ratio 1.5 : 1
60% of vehicles were reversing
41% of vehicles were 4WDs
54% involved relative or friend

Neeman et al. [30]1996–1998AustraliaCSDR≤7 years36 60% aged between 13–24 months
64% male children
78% occurred at child’s residence
64% residential driveway
19% were cars, 22% were 4WDs, 22% utility vehicles
87% involved reversing vehicles
86% involved relative or friend as driver

Williamson et al. [31] 1995–2000AustraliaCSLSVRO<6 years 49 Majority aged 1-2 years, predominantly male (67%)
18% of cases occurred in residential driveway
58% of cases were not supervised at the time of the incident
Majority of driveway runovers involved 4WDs

Byard et al. [32] 1977–1996AustraliaCSLSVRO1–16
4 cases (6%) occurred in home driveway
3 reversed over by car and 1 by truck
1 case driver was a parent
Mean age = 2.5 (1.08), male : female ratio 1 : 3

Robinson and Nolan [6]1985–1995AustraliaCSLSVRO≤15 years28 68% of cases were males, age between 0.1–9.7 yrs
54% of cases occurred in home driveways
89% of cases involved driver known to child
57% of cases involved vehicle reversing
61% of cases driver was unaware of child

Olson et al. [33]1986–1990USCSLSVRO0–14 years21 Majority of cases occurred in those aged <5 years
33% deaths in non-traffic locations (driveways and parking lots)

Brison et al. [5] 1979–1983USCS LSVRO<5 years41 73% of cases aged 0–2 years, 61% male children
73% of cases occurred in driveways
56% of cases involved a reversing vehicle
39% were light trucks, 29% 4WD vehicle

Kravitz and Korach [10]1963-1964USCSDR0–9 years9 Age range 13 months to 9 years, majority below 4 years
Occurring in newer suburbs
All incidents in driveways
All incidents involved reversing cars

aStudy design: CS: case series; CC: case control, AC: aggregate cross-sectional.
bLSVRO: non-traffic low-speed vehicle runover; DR: non-traffic low-speed vehicle runover occurring in domestic driveway.
c”indicates study conducts subgroup analysis of this study factor.
A: age; B: sex; C: race/ethnicity; D: SES; E: housing type; F: driver characteristics; G: vehicle type; H: direction of vehicle; I: environmental characteristics; J: child Behavioural characteristics; K: child anthropometric characteristics; L: temporal factors, M: peer reviewed.