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International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 254396, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/254396
Research Article

Free Radicals and Antioxidant Status in Protein Energy Malnutrition

1Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
3Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Received 2 November 2013; Revised 24 February 2014; Accepted 25 February 2014; Published 27 March 2014

Academic Editor: Namık Yaşar Özbek

Copyright © 2014 M. Khare et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background/Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status in children with different grades of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM). Subjects/Methods. A total of two hundred fifty (250) children (age range: 6 months to 5 years) living in eastern UP, India, were recruited. One hundred and ninety-three (193) of these children had different grades of PEM (sixty-five (65) children belong to mild, sixty (60) to moderate, and sixty-eight (68) to severe group). Grading in group was done after standardization in weight and height measurements. Fifty-seven (57) children who are age and and sex matched, healthy, and well-nourished were recruited from the local community and used as controls after checking their protein status (clinical nutritional status) with height and weight standardization. Redox homeostasis was assessed using spectrophotometric/colorimetric methods. Results. In our study, erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), plasma Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD,EC 1.15.1.1), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and ascorbic acid were significantly ( ) more decreased in children with malnutrition than controls. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC) were significantly ( ) raised in cases as compared to controls. Conclusion. Stress is created as a result of PEM which is responsible for the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). These ROSs will lead to membrane oxidation and thus an increase in lipid peroxidation byproducts such as MDA and protein oxidation byproducts such as PC mainly. Decrease in level of antioxidants suggests an increased defense against oxidant damage. Changes in oxidant and antioxidant levels may be responsible for grading in PEM.