Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 349795, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/349795
Clinical Study

Two Oral Midazolam Preparations in Pediatric Dental Patients: A Prospective Randomised Clinical Trial

1Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Oro-Maxillofacial Developmental Disease Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht 4194173774, Iran
2Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
3Department of Pediatric Psychiatry, Shafa Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
4Department of Pediatric Anesthesiology, Mofid Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5Medical Research Development Center, Mofid Children’s Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Received 5 December 2014; Accepted 27 April 2015

Academic Editor: Naveed Hussain

Copyright © 2015 Katayoun Salem et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Raadal, S. Lundeberg, and G. Haukali, “Pain, pain control and sedation,” in Pediatric Dentistry, A Clinical Approach, G. Koch and S. Poulsen, Eds., p. 54, Blackwell, Singapore, 2nd edition, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  2. L. Lourenço-Matharu, P. F. Ashley, and S. Furness, “Sedation of children undergoing dental treatment,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 3, Article ID CD003877, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Alzahrani and A. Wyne, “Use of oral midazolam sedation in pediatric dentistry: a review,” Pakistan Oral & Dental Journal, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 444–455, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. D. E. Becker and P. A. Moor, “Anxiolytics and sedative-hypnotics,” in Management of Pain and Anxiety in the Dental Office, R. A. Dionne, J. C. Phero, and D. E. Becker, Eds., pp. 129–260, W.E. Saunders Company, 1st edition, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  5. C. Goho, “Oral midazolam-grapefruit juice drug interaction,” Pediatric Dentistry, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 365–366, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. F. Malamed, Sedation: A Guide to Patient Management, Chapter 7, C. V. Mosby, Elsevier, San Diego, Calif, USA, 5th edition, 2010.
  7. M. Rosenberg, “Oral midazolam syrup as a safe sedative for pediatric dentistry,” Dental News, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 69–71, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  8. S. A. Sheta and M. AlSarheed, “Oral midazolam premedication for children undergoing general anaesthesia for dental care,” International Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 2009, Article ID 274380, 7 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. S. Wilson and L. Ganzberg, “Pain Reaction control: sedation,” in Casamassimo, Fields, Mctigue, Nowak; Pediatric Dentistry, Infancy through Adolescence, p. 115, Elsevier, Beijing, China, 5th edition, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. A. Dean, D. R. Avery, and R. E. McDonald, Eds., McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent, Mosby-Elsevier, Shanghai, China, 9th edition, 2011.
  11. M. I. Houpt, R. G. Rosivack, N. Rozenfarb, and S. R. Koeningsberg, “Effects of nitrous oxide on chloral hydrate sedation of young children,” Anesthesia Progress, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 298–302, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. M. Sheroan, D. C. Dilley, W. J. Lucas, and W. F. Vann, “A prospective study of 2 sedation regimens in children: chloral hydrate, meperidine, and hydroxyzine versus midazolam, meperidine, and hydroxyzine,” Anesthesia Progress, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 83–90, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. K. Brosius and C. F. Bannister, “Midazolam premedication in children: a comparison of two oral dosage formulations on sedation score and plasma midazolam levels,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 392–395, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. N. Khalil, H. N. Vije, S. S. Kee, A. Farag, E. Hanna, and A. Z. Chuang, “A paediatric trial comparing midazolam/Syrpalta mixture with premixed midazolam syrup (Roche),” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 205–209, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Isik, Ö. Baygin, and H. Bodur, “Effect of drinks that are added as flavoring in oral midazolam premedication on sedation success,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 494–500, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Jain, B. Ghai, A. K. Saxena, D. Saini, and N. Khandelwal, “Efficacy of two oral premedicants: midazolam or a low-dose combination of midazolam-ketamine for reducing stress during intravenous cannulation in children undergoing CT imaging,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 330–337, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Z. N. Kain, J. N. MacLaren, B. C. McClain et al., “Effects of age and emotionality on the effectiveness of midazolam administered preoperatively to children,” Anesthesiology, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 545–552, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. D. Mishra, G. K. Sinha, P. B. Rao, V. Sharma, K. Satya, and R. Gairola, “Injectable midazolam as oral premedicant in pediatric neurosurgery,” Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 193–198, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Zhang, S. Niu, H. Zhang, and J. B. Streisand, “Oral mucosal absorption of midazolam in dogs is strongly pH dependent,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 980–982, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. H. Shojaei, “Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery: a review,” Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 15–30, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. F. Levine, I. A. Spahr-Schopfer, E. Hartley, J. Lerman, and B. MacPherson, “Oral midazolam premedication in children: the minimum time interval for separation from parents,” Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 726–729, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Saarnivaara, L. Lindgren, and U.-M. Klemola, “Comparison of chloral hydrate and midazolam by mouth as premedicants in children undergoing otolaryngological surgery,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 390–396, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. J. CotE, J. Lerman, R. M. Ward, R. A. Lugo, and N. Goudsouzian, “Pharmacokinetics and pharmacology of drugs used in children,” in A Practice of Anaesthesia for Infants and Children, C. J. Cote, J. Lerman, and I. D. Todres, Eds., Elsevier, 4th edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar