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International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4162597, 6 pages
Clinical Study

Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in Kawasaki Disease

1Department of Pediatrics, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
2Division of Nursing, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
3Department of Pediatrics, Japan Self-Defense Forces Central Hospital, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Seiichiro Takeshita;

Received 21 November 2016; Revised 2 February 2017; Accepted 13 February 2017; Published 28 February 2017

Academic Editor: Hans Juergen Laws

Copyright © 2017 Yoichi Kawamura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD). We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH) activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5) levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI), and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI) and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) responders () and nonresponders () with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD ( IU/L, ) and UTI patients ( IU/L, ) than in VI patients ( IU/L). In the isozyme pattern analysis, KD patients had high levels of U-LDH1 and U-LDH2, while UTI patients had high levels of U-LDH3, U-LDH4, and U-LDH5. Furthermore, IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity ( IU/L, ), especially U-LDH1 and U-LDH2 (), than IVIG responders ( IU/L). KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients.