Table of Contents
International Journal of Plant Genomics
Volume 2011, Article ID 369460, 11 pages
Research Article

Differential Expression of Three Flavanone 3-Hydroxylase Genes in Grains and Coleoptiles of Wheat

Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Okayama, Kurashiki 710-0046, Japan

Received 4 March 2011; Revised 27 June 2011; Accepted 27 June 2011

Academic Editor: Akhilesh Kumar Tyagi

Copyright © 2011 Eiko Himi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Flavonoid pigments are known to accumulate in red grains and coleoptiles of wheat and are synthesized through the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) is a key enzyme at a diverging point of the flavonoid pathway leading to production of different pigments: phlobaphene, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. We isolated three F3H genes from wheat and examined a relationship between their expression and tissue pigmentation. Three F3Hs are located on the telomeric region of the long arm of chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 2D, respectively, designated as F3H-A1, F3H-B1, and F3H-D1. The telomeric regions of the long arms of the chromosomes of homoeologous group 2 of wheat showed a syntenic relationship to the telomeric region of the long arm of rice chromosome 4, on which rice F3H gene was also located. All three genes were highly activated in the red grains and coleoptiles and appeared to be controlled by flavonoid regulators in each tissue.