Table of Contents
International Journal of Population Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 274963, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/274963
Research Article

Influence of Perceived Racial Discrimination on Health and Behaviour of Immigrant Children in British Columbia

1University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
2University of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC, Canada V2S 7M8
3Aga Khan University East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

Received 16 August 2011; Accepted 21 December 2011

Academic Editor: Uyen Tran

Copyright © 2012 M. Anne George et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. T. Schaefer, Racial and Ethnic Groups, Harper and Collins Publishers, 1993.
  2. R. C. Kessler, K. D. Mickelson, and D. R. Williams, “The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 208–230, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Y. Paradies, “A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 888–901, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. R. Williams, H. W. Neighbors, and T. S. Jackson, “Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: findings from community studies,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 98, supplement, pp. 1541–1549, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  5. R. Clark, N. B. Anderson, V. R. Clark, and D. R. Williams, “Racism as a stressor for African Americans: a biopsychosocial model,” American Psychologist, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 805–816, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Gee and K. Walsemann, “Does health predict the reporting of racial discrimination or do reports of discrimination predict health? Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 1676–1684, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. B. K. Finch, B. Kolody, and W. A. Vega, “Perceived discrimination and depression among Mexican-origin adults in California,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 295–313, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. H. Brody, Y. F. Chen, V. M. Murry et al., “Perceived discrimination and the adjustment of African American youths: a five-year longitudinal analysis with contextual moderation effects,” Child Development, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 1170–1189, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. L. Simons, V. Murry, V. McLoyd, K. H. Lin, C. Cutrona, and R. D. Conger, “Discrimination, crime, ethnic identity, and parenting as correlates of depressive symptoms among African American children: a multilevel analysis,” Development and Psychopathology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 371–393, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. R. Coker, M. N. Elliott, D. E. Kanouse et al., “Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among fifth-grade students and its association with mental health,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 878–884, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. L. Dion, K. K. Dion, and A. W.-P. Pak, “Personality-based hardiness as a buffer for discrimination-related stress in members of Toronto’s Chinese community,” Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 517–536, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  12. N. Krieger and S. Sidney, “Racial discrimination and blood pressure: the CARDIA study of young black and white adults,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 86, no. 10, pp. 1370–1378, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. X. S. Ren, B. C. Amick, and D. R. Williams, “Racial/ethnic disparities in health: the interplay between discrimination and socioeconomic status,” Ethnicity and Disease, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 151–165, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. R. Williams, R. Lavizzo-Mourey, and R. C. Warren, “The concept of race and health status in America,” Public Health Reports, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 26–41, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Karlsen and J. Y. Nazroo, “Relation between racial discrimination, social class, and health among ethnic minority groups,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 624–631, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. E. Adler and J. M. Ostove, “Socioeconomic status and health: what we know and what we don’t,” in Socioeconomic Status and Health in Industrial Nations: Social, Psychological and Biological Pathways, N. E. Adler, M. Marmot, B. S. McEwen, and J. Stewart, Eds., vol. 896, pp. 3–15, Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  17. M. Beiser, H. Hamilton, J. A. Rummens et al., “Predictors of emotional problems and physical aggression among children of Hong Kong Chinese, Mainland Chinese and Filipino immigrants to Canada,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1011–1021, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Beiser, N. Zilber, L. Simich et al., “Regional effects on the mental health of immigrant children: results from the New Canadian Children and Youth Study (NCCYS),” Health & Place, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 822–829, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. Statistics Canada and Ministry of Industry, National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth: Growing up in Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1996.
  20. A. Quesnel-Vallée, “Self-rated health: caught in the crossfire of the quest for “true” health?” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1161–1164, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. B. Dowd and A. Zajacova, “Does the predictive power of self-rated health for subsequent mortality risk vary by socioeconomic status in the US?” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1214–1221, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Huisman, F. Van lenthe, and J. Mackenbach, “The predictive ability of self-assessed health for mortality in different educational groups,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1207–1213, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Singh-Manoux, A. Dugravot, M. J. Shipley et al., “The association between self-rated health and mortality in different socioeconomic groups in the GAZEL cohort study,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1222–1228, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. L. Idler and Y. Benyamini, “Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 21–37, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  25. R. Dinovitzer, J. Hagan, and P. Parker, “Choice and circumstance: social capital and planful competence in the attainments of immigrant youth,” Canadian Journal of Sociology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 463–488, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. X. Ma, “The first ten years in Canada: a multi-level assessment of behavioural and emotional problems of immigrant children,” Canadian Public Policy, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 395–418, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus