International Journal of Population Research http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Determinants of Under-Five Mortality in High Mortality Regions of Ethiopia: An Analysis of the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey Data Thu, 08 Dec 2016 08:10:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2016/1602761/ The study was a secondary analysis of existing data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey data. Of the 2097 live births recorded in Affar, Somali, Benishangul-Gumuz, and Gambela regions of Ethiopia between 2006 and 2011, 366 deaths before the age of five years were reported. The univariable and multivariable Cox proportional regression models were fitted to select the factors affecting under-five mortality in these regions. The model revealed that under-five mortality significantly associated with preceding birth interval, family size, birth type, breastfeeding status, source of drinking water, and income of mother. Children born after a preceding birth interval of 2-3 years and 3 years and above were significantly less likely to have died before their fifth birthday than those born within two years. Children who were breastfed, for any period, were 25.5% (HR 1.255, 1.005–1.567, p = 0.045) less likely to have died before their fifth birthday than those who were not breastfed. Increased birth interval time corresponds to a low probability of child mortality. Thus, mothers should be encouraged to wait for a sufficient number of months after a birth to conceive another child. Furthermore, breastfeeding was of paramount importance in the fight against child mortality. Solomon Gebretsadik and Emmanuel Gabreyohannes Copyright © 2016 Solomon Gebretsadik and Emmanuel Gabreyohannes. All rights reserved. Impact of Education on Fertility: Evidence from a Tribal Society in Assam, India Mon, 28 Nov 2016 11:16:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2016/3153685/ This paper examines the education-fertility linkage in tribal society through a cross section study on the Misings, the second largest scheduled tribe of the state of Assam, India. Applying multiple regression analysis, the paper finds that while the education of both wife and husband has retarding effect on fertility, the number of live births born is significantly less when wives are more educated than husbands. The education of females has been found to have positive relation with fertility up to 5.3 years of schooling and negative relation thereafter so as to reach the replacement level of fertility at the graduate level of education. Thus, the critical years of education of the wives required to have a depressing impact on fertility is 5.3. The paper recommends policies for expansion of education with primary focus on inclusion and retention of the females in education. Amarjyoti Mahanta Copyright © 2016 Amarjyoti Mahanta. All rights reserved. Impact of Postmigration Living Difficulties on the Mental Health of Afghan Migrants Residing in Istanbul Wed, 28 Sep 2016 11:12:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2016/7690697/ Background. The sociopolitical situation in Afghanistan continually pushes Afghans to seek safety and better socioeconomic prospects in neighboring and foreign countries. In this paper we examine the mental health of Afghan migrants residing in Istanbul, Turkey, an understudied population at high risk of psychopathology. Methods. We surveyed 158 Afghan migrants to assess psychological distress using a culturally grounded measure of mental health, the Afghan Symptom Checklist [ASCL], and used hierarchical regression analysis to examine the impact of postmigration living difficulties (PMLDs) on mental health. Results. We found that depressive, somatoform, anxiety-like symptoms occurred often, as did a number of culturally salient idioms of distress. Regression analyses showed that while socioeconomic variables and poor physical health status significantly predicted psychological distress, PMLDs exerted the strongest negative effect. The most pressing PMLDs for Afghans in Turkey are poverty, unemployment, lack of treatment for health problems, fears of being deported and related legal challenges, and family-related stressors. Conclusion. Our results point to the importance of the critical need to create culturally sensitive interventions to remediate high levels of psychological distress by addressing related PMLD stressors in a highly vulnerable Afghan migrant population residing in Turkey. Qais Alemi, Carl Stempel, Kelly Baek, Lisa Lares, Patricia Villa, Didem Danis, and Susanne Montgomery Copyright © 2016 Qais Alemi et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Declining Fertility on Household Socioeconomic Conditions in Tanzania: A Comparative Study of Urban versus Rural Areas of Kwimba District, Mwanza Region Tue, 23 Aug 2016 08:05:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2016/4716432/ This study examined the effects of declining fertility on household socioeconomic and health conditions in Tanzania, using a comparative survey of urban versus rural areas of Kwimba District in Mwanza region. Cross-sectional cum causal-comparative research design was adopted for the study. The target population is comprised of all females of the childbearing age residing in Kwimba District. The study utilized a stratified random sampling technique to pick two areas in the district while disproportionate random sampling technique was used to select 196 respondents. A questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. Multivariate analyses were adopted to answer the three research questions of the study. The findings of this study revealed that women of the childbearing age from the two study sites in the district exhibited a small difference regarding fertility inequalities and socioeconomic and health conditions. This study also discovered a significant relationship between critical socioeconomic variables and women’s improved socioeconomic status in the communities. These findings, therefore, provide an explanation for the onset of fertility decline which has consequently led to some demonstrated demographic dividend at a household level. The paper recommends enhancement of social transformation and women empowerment in both rural and urban environments for sustained improved living conditions. George Felix Masanja, Emmanuel Lwankomezi, and Chrisant Emmanuel Copyright © 2016 George Felix Masanja et al. All rights reserved. Trends and Patterns of Educational Homogamy in India: A Marriage Cohort Analysis Thu, 18 Aug 2016 16:34:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2016/8562942/ Research in assortative mating in developing countries focused mainly on the cultural similarities of individuals till the most recent times. Educational homogamy was not considered a significant factor. This study examined the changes in educational homogamy of 39,257 ever-married couples in India for the three marriage cohorts 1964–1984, 1985–1995, and 1996–2006 by place of residence, religion, and economic background. The study also examined the regional pattern of educational homogamy based on female literacy and the probability of educational homogamy after adjusting for socioeconomic background of the respondent. Data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) was used for the study. The study observed significant increase in educational homogamy for the successive marriage cohorts. Homogamy is concentrated at the extremes of the educational attainment. In urban areas, homogamy is concentrated among the higher educated individuals whereas, in rural areas, homogamy is high among uneducated individuals. The results also depict regions with higher female literacy having the highest educational homogamy and vice versa. The study also found an increase in the probability of homogamy and a decline in hypogamy for literate women, after accounting for socioeconomic confounders. Kakoli Borkotoky and Ashish Kumar Gupta Copyright © 2016 Kakoli Borkotoky and Ashish Kumar Gupta. All rights reserved. Distributive Implications of Fertility Changes in Latin America Thu, 30 Jun 2016 13:11:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2016/8717265/ Fertility rates significantly fell over the last decades in Latin America. In order to assess the extent to which these changes contributed to the observed reduction in income poverty and inequality, we apply microeconometric decomposition to microdata from national household surveys from seven Latin American countries. We find that changes in fertility rates were associated with a nonnegligible reduction in inequality and poverty in the region. The main channel was straightforward: lower fertility implied smaller families and hence larger per capita incomes. Lower fertility also fostered labor force participation, especially among women, which contributed to the reduction of poverty and inequality in most countries, although the size of this effect was smaller. Nicolás Badaracco, Leonardo Gasparini, and Mariana Marchionni Copyright © 2016 Nicolás Badaracco et al. All rights reserved. Increasing Access and Adherence to the PMTCT Cascade: Is There a Role for Economic Strengthening Interventions? Mon, 27 Jun 2016 14:14:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2016/4039012/ Interventions aimed at prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV are extremely effective but remain underutilized in many countries. Common economic barriers to PMTCT experienced by pregnant women with HIV are well documented. Addressing these economic barriers has a potential to improve PMTCT utilization and further reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission. This review examines the evidence of the effects economic strengthening (ES) interventions have on use of and adherence to PMTCT and other health services relevant to PMTCT cascade. While very few studies on ES interventions were conducted in PMTCT settings, the results of a recent randomised trial demonstrate that conditional cash transfers offered to women in PMTCT programme can significantly improve retention in care and adherence to treatment. This review also considers evidence on ES interventions conducted within other health care settings relevant to PMTCT cascade. While the evidence from other settings is promising, it may not be fully applicable to PMTCT and more quality research on ES interventions among population of pregnant women with HIV is needed. Answering some of the research questions formulated by this review can provide more evidence for programme implementers and guide decisions about how to increase women’s use of and adherence to PMTCT services. Irina Yacobson, Morrisa Malkin, and Elena Lebetkin Copyright © 2016 Irina Yacobson et al. All rights reserved. Proximate Determinants of Fertility in Zambia: Analysis of the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey Thu, 14 Apr 2016 14:14:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2016/5236351/ The role of proximate determinants in influencing fertility has been well documented worldwide. Bongaarts’ aggregate model of the proximate determinants (which focuses on marriage, contraception, abortion, and sterility) has been widely used to analyse the influence of proximate determinants on fertility. In Zambia, however, there is limited understanding of their effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of proximate determinants of fertility in Zambia using Bongaarts’ model. This was a cross-sectional analysis of women’s data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS). A total of 7,146 women aged 15 to 49 years participated in the ZDHS. Bongaarts’ model was employed in the data analysis. Results showed that, overall, mean age was 27.8 years and rural-urban distribution was 56% and 44%, respectively. Marriage (40%) and postpartum infecundity (22%) accounted for the largest inhibiting effect on natural fertility from its biological maximum of 19.10. Contraception use accounted for only 3%. Therefore, in order to manage fertility in Zambia, policies and programmes should consider the effects of marriage, postpartum infecundity, and contraception on fertility. Without such targeted interventions, managing and maintaining population growth will remain a challenge in Zambia. Mumbi Chola and Charles Michelo Copyright © 2016 Mumbi Chola and Charles Michelo. All rights reserved. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Mexican Children in New York Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:29:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2016/2420167/ This paper analyses the risk factors for being overweight or obese among the children of Mexican migrants in the United States. It draws on a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews and participant observation with 30 parents in New York State. Findings indicate risks related to nutritional deficiencies and food insecurity before migration, adaptation to US lifestyles, and the cultural tendency to value being overweight as a sign of greater health and higher socioeconomic status. Findings also show that mothers use various strategies to resist the excessive consumption of fast food, yet they simultaneously experience dilemmas around the family’s consumption due to the gender norm that women are responsible for children’s diet. Esperanza Tuñón-Pablos and Joanna Dreby Copyright © 2016 Esperanza Tuñón-Pablos and Joanna Dreby. All rights reserved. The Nexus between Child Marriage and Women Empowerment with Physical Violence in Two Culturally Distinct States of India Mon, 07 Dec 2015 11:19:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2015/458654/ Summary. We investigated the relationship between child marriage among young women and their level of empowerment with spousal physical violence in two culturally distinct states of India (Bihar and Tamil Nadu) using nationally representative survey data. Empowerment index was calculated taking into account parameters such as mobility, economic independence, and decision-making power of a woman using Principal Component Analysis method. Lower level of women empowerment was significantly associated with physical violence in Tamil Nadu (OR = 2.38, ) whereas marriage before the age of 15 was associated with physical violence in Bihar (OR = 3.27, ). The mean age at marriage was low among women who reported physical violence as compared to those who did not report physical violence across Bihar and Tamil Nadu and at all India level. Although the majority of the women in Tamil Nadu justified wife beating and witnessed father beating mother as compared to the women from Bihar, however, they were less likely to report physical violence than women from Bihar. Factors contributing to physical violence are distinct in Bihar and Tamil Nadu. Culture specific intervention may be considered while planning intervention strategies to curb spousal violence against women. Jayakant Singh and Enu Anand Copyright © 2015 Jayakant Singh and Enu Anand. All rights reserved. Exposure to HAP and the Regional Pattern of Air-Related Morbidity in India: A Multivariate Analysis Tue, 28 Jul 2015 06:39:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2015/428217/ This paper attempts to analyse the nature of relationship between the levels of Household Air Pollution (HAP) and incidence of morbidity in urban India along with the pattern of its regional variations. It also explores the causal connection between the incidence of air-related diseases and HAP, giving control for outdoor pollution. Whether these effects are sensitive to the overall level of economic development is an issue of our interest. Therefore, the States/UTs of India are grouped, in terms of different developmental parameters, using Multidimensional Scaling and Clustering technique, and the relation between HAP and morbidity has been analysed for each group of states by applying stepwise regression techniques. The study of this heterogeneity helped us provide more focused policy prescriptions. Different policy prescriptions in terms of education as well as exposure to HAP and fuel choices have been suggested for different clusters. Sabitri Dutta Copyright © 2015 Sabitri Dutta. All rights reserved. Mortality Decline in Kenya: A Reexamination of Recent Under-Five Mortality Estimate Thu, 09 Jul 2015 07:32:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2015/296437/ This study examined the extent of birth displacement and its effect on the under-five mortality estimates in Kenya. Using data from 2003 and 2008/09 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys, we evaluate the variability of birth displacement by region and place of residence based on the survival status of the child. We compute birth ratios for children born in the 5th calendar year preceding each survey and note the possible effect on under-five mortality estimates. Results show that under-five mortality estimates in 2008/09 survey are smaller than that of a similar period in 2003 survey by 17 percent. Overall, birth ratios for the 5th calendar year were below 100 percent suggesting presence of birth displacement. However, there was no variance in the displacement between surviving and dead children, hence modest impact on the under-five mortality rate. Evidence suggests that the remarkable decline in the under-five mortality rate recorded in 2008/09 is a function of both overestimation of mortality rate in 2003 survey and underestimation in 2008/09 survey. We recommend that data from more than one source be used to interpret under-five mortality decline and further research should be conducted linking the observed mortality decline to the delivery of known effective interventions. George Odwe, Anne Khasakhala, Titus Agwanda, Andrew Imbwaga, and Zena Lyaga Copyright © 2015 George Odwe et al. All rights reserved. Accuracy of Nearly Extinct Cohort Methods for Estimating Very Elderly Subnational Populations Wed, 01 Jul 2015 08:35:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2015/978186/ Increasing very elderly populations (ages 85+) have potentially major implications for the cost of income support, aged care, and healthcare. The availability of accurate estimates for this population age group, not only at a national level but also at a state or regional scale, is vital for policy development, budgeting, and planning for services. At the highest ages census-based population estimates are well known to be problematic and previous studies have demonstrated that more accurate estimates can be obtained indirectly from death data. This paper assesses indirect estimation methods for estimating state-level very elderly populations from death counts. A method for incorporating internal migration is also proposed. The results confirm that the accuracy of official estimates deteriorates rapidly with increasing age from 95 and that the survivor ratio method can be successfully applied at subnational level and internal migration is minor. It is shown that the simpler alternative of applying the survivor ratio method at a national level and apportioning the estimates between the states produces very accurate estimates for most states and years. This is the recommended method. While the methods are applied at a state level in Australia, the principles are generic and are applicable to other subnational geographies. Wilma Terblanche and Tom Wilson Copyright © 2015 Wilma Terblanche and Tom Wilson. All rights reserved. Intergenerational Transmission of Education in India: Evidence from a Nationwide Survey Tue, 28 Apr 2015 09:35:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2015/251953/ The intergenerational transmission of education has been investigated extensively in social science research. The existing literature shows that none of the studies in India related the process of partner selection and differential fertility with the intergenerational transmission of education. Here, we examined the timing of marriage and childbearing along with the probability of partner selection, according to education of women and how these processes lead to heterogeneity in educational attainment of children. The educational attainment of children was estimated by fitting the estimated marriage probabilities and children ever born in the intergenerational transmission model. The results were replicated in different random samples to examine its validity. The study found that higher educated women marry late, have fewer children, and marry men with higher or equal education. Further, the results indicate that education of women is a more significant predictor than education of husband in reducing average number of children born to couples. The findings confirm that children attain higher education than their parents, and better educated mothers do not discriminate between their children to provide higher education. These findings reinforce the significance of government initiatives to provide incentives to families with higher educated girls to ensure better education of the next generation. Kakoli Borkotoky, Sayeed Unisa, and Ashish Kumar Gupta Copyright © 2015 Kakoli Borkotoky et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Contraceptive Adherence among Women Seeking Family Planning Services at Reproductive Health Uganda, Mityana Branch Wed, 15 Apr 2015 11:24:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2015/574329/ Poor adherence is one of the main causes of unintended pregnancies among women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to establish the predictors of contraceptive adherence. A total of 211 women were enrolled and interviewed while seeking family planning services at reproductive health Uganda facility. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between adherence and the independent variables. Most of the respondents (83.4%) were currently using a hormonal contraceptive. Of the participants who were using contraceptives, 43% had discontinued use at some time for reasons other than pregnancy, 53.1% reported having short birth interval less than 2 years, and 7% reported having more children than desired. The predictors of poor contraceptive adherence included lower education level (OR 2.484, 95% CI 1.403–4.397) and lower self-efficacy (OR 1.698, 95% CI 1.959–3.004). Lack of male partner support (OR 2.014, 95% CI 1.140–3.557) and low education level (OR 2.103, 95% CI 1.196–3.699) were predictive of reporting short birth interval less than 2 years. The findings point to a number of predictors of contraceptive adherence that may have implications for designing and evaluating family planning programs. In the Ugandan context, studies to evaluate effective adherence improvement strategies are needed. Richard Muhindo, Joyce Nankumbi Okonya, Sara Groves, and Michelene Chenault Copyright © 2015 Richard Muhindo et al. All rights reserved. Inequality in the Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Odisha, India Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:20:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2015/531485/ Odisha, one of the socioeconomically disadvantaged states of India, registers high maternal deaths. The state features wide regional and sociodemographic diversity with the Koraput-Balangir-Kalahandi (KBK) districts, dominated by disadvantaged tribal population. This study aims to assess the level and pattern of maternal healthcare services utilization among different subgroups of women in Odisha with a special focus on the regional, economic, and educational inequality using the latest District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-III, 2007-08). Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to understand the pattern of utilization of maternal healthcare services among women by different background characteristics. Concentration curve and decomposition analysis were used to understand the inequalities in utilization of maternal healthcare services and contribution of different socioeconomic factors. Results reveal wide regional variation in the utilization of maternal healthcare services. The utilization of maternal healthcare services is more concentrated among affluent households. Economic inequality in safe delivery is high. Decomposition analysis shows education as the leading contributor in explaining maternal healthcare services utilization. Enhancing literacy among women and improving of health infrastructure and its quality in rural and disadvantaged regions may be prioritized to improve the maternal health in Odisha. Ranjan Kumar Prusty, Jitendra Gouda, and Manas Ranjan Pradhan Copyright © 2015 Ranjan Kumar Prusty et al. All rights reserved. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women: Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference? Tue, 24 Feb 2015 09:28:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2015/578150/ This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India , were analysed. Directly standardized overall and parity-specific pregnancy rates were compared among HIV infected women before and after coming to know about their HIV status. The age- and parity-standardized pregnancy rates and age-standardized parity-specific pregnancy rates were statistically significantly lower after knowing about HIV status as compared to before the HIV status was known. Analysis of parity-specific rates suggested lower likelihood of HIV infected women to progress to higher parity. The clear behavioural impact of HIV on fertility observed should be taken into account while estimating HIV infected pregnant women in the country. Ensuring access to information and services for PMTCT to HIV infected couples is essential to support informed reproductive decision making among them. Shrinivas Darak, Inge Hutter, Sanjeevani Kulkarni, Vinay Kulkarni, and Fanny Janssen Copyright © 2015 Shrinivas Darak et al. All rights reserved. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers Thu, 12 Feb 2015 11:23:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2015/617907/ Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56). Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17–19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers. Sheryl L. Coley, Tracy R. Nichols, Kelly L. Rulison, Robert E. Aronson, Shelly L. Brown-Jeffy, and Sharon D. Morrison Copyright © 2015 Sheryl L. Coley et al. All rights reserved. Theories of Urban Dynamics Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/494871/ This paper reviews the existing analysis framework for territorial dynamics and urban growth and proposes a taxonomy of interpretive theories as well as a critical review. Specifically, the paper aims to provide four innovations to existing knowledge in this field as follows: firstly, a clear presentation of how the data of population growth of each habitat type have appeared and their academic interpretations; secondly, a reclassification of interpretative theories into three groups: the counterurban, the post-fordist, and the cyclical theories; thirdly, with the ultimate goal to analyze the suitability of interpretations to the reality, a taxonomic proposal of habitat categories being made; fourthly, the final one refering to the balance of the theoretical to the empirical reality, in light of the data currently available, using the considered methodologies. That balance allows collecting positive elements of each theory and pointing to the possibility of developing a theory of synthesis. Manuel García Docampo Copyright © 2014 Manuel García Docampo. All rights reserved. Assessing Net Coverage for Young Children in the 2010 U.S. Decennial Census Tue, 18 Nov 2014 08:17:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/671715/ The U.S. Census Bureau’s Demographic Analysis shows that the population aged 0 to 4 experienced a net undercount rate of 4.6 percent in the 2010 Decennial Census. This is more than twice as high as any other age group. Despite the fact that the relatively high net undercount of young children was uncovered more than fifty years ago, this problem has received little systematic attention from demographers. To help fill that gap in the literature, this study examines the accuracy of the count of children in the 2010 Decennial Census. The initial focus on all children shifts to a focus on young children (aged 0 to 4) where the net undercount rate is the highest. Discussion highlights some of the potential explanations for the findings. William P. O’Hare Copyright © 2014 William P. O’Hare. All rights reserved. Explaining Sex Differentials in Child Mortality in India: Trends and Determinants Thu, 06 Nov 2014 09:36:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/649741/ This study has twofold objectives: (1) to investigate the progress in sex differentials in child mortality in India in terms of within and between group changes and (2) to identify the factors explaining the sex differentials in child mortality and quantify their relative contributions. We have used three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data, 1992 to 2006. Life table approach and Pyatt and Oaxaca decomposition models were used as methods of analyses. The results revealed that though sex differential in child mortality is still high in India, it declined during 1992 to 2006 (Gini index from 0.36 to 0.24). This decline was primarily led by a change in within inequality of female child mortality (Gini index from 0.18 to 0.14). Among the selected predictors, breastfeeding (40%), birth order (24%), antenatal care (9%), and mother’s age (7%) emerged as critical contributors for the excess female child mortality in India. From the findings of this study, we suggest that any efforts to do away with gender differences in child survival should focus more on within female child disparity across different population subgroups alongside male-female disparity. Implications are advanced. Shrikant Kuntla, Srinivas Goli, and Kshipra Jain Copyright © 2014 Shrikant Kuntla et al. All rights reserved. Disparities in Health Outcomes of Return Migrants in Mexico Tue, 28 Oct 2014 06:35:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/468250/ Objective. The epidemiological paradox posits that immigrants in USA experience better health outcomes than nonimmigrants with similar socioeconomic status. However, little is known about the development of health problems over the life course for immigrants who return to their country of origin. Methods. The Mexican Migration Project provides detailed information on immigration, health, and socioeconomic status for 671 unauthorized migrants, 101 legal migrants, and 3,748 nonmigrants. Cox regression estimated the adjusted hazard of developing hypertension, diabetes/prediabetes, poor mental health, and heart and lung problems. Results. Legal immigrants to USA did not have a significantly higher risk of having a self-reported diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, heart or lung problems, or poor mental health compared to nonmigrants. However, the hazard ratio for unauthorized deported immigrants ranged from 2.25 (CI: 1.29–3.93) for diabetes to 4.43 (CI: 2.33–8.40) for poor mental health compared to nonmigrants. Conclusions. Health problems occur several years earlier among unauthorized immigrants compared to individuals who never migrated. Poor access to healthcare services combined with USA lifestyle and working conditions after migration to the USA may contribute to an increased risk for the development of chronic health conditions later in life. Fernando A. Wilson, Jim P. Stimpson, and José A. Pagán Copyright © 2014 Fernando A. Wilson et al. All rights reserved. Gender and Reproductive Outcomes: The Effects of a Radio Serial Drama in Northern Nigeria Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/326905/ A large body of evidence has documented the effectiveness of mass-media communication programs in increasing family planning use and changing reproductive behavior. But the potential impact of these programs on the mediating role of gender norms has not been systematically assessed in Nigeria. Regionally representative cross-sectional end line data collected for the evaluation of a long-running entertainment-education radio serial drama program aired in northern Nigeria are examined for program effects on both reproductive and gender outcomes as well as the relative effect of gender on reproductive outcomes. The drama was popular, with 70% of the sample listening weekly. Results show that the drama positively impacted both sets of outcomes especially the reproductive outcomes. Results further indicate a strong relative effect of gender on reproductive issues. Fatou Jah, Scott Connolly, Kriss Barker, and William Ryerson Copyright © 2014 Fatou Jah et al. All rights reserved. Population Projections for Sparsely Populated Areas: Reconciling “Error” and Context Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/658157/ Population projections are increasingly utilised as tools for understanding and modelling the economic, social, and environmental futures of sparsely populated areas. This study examines issues around “fit for purpose” for the application of projections to remote contexts. We focus on projections made for the Northern Territory of Australia, a jurisdiction in the north of the country, to assess the relative accuracy of projections over time. The results conclusively demonstrate the reduced accuracy of remote population projections. Nevertheless, the exercise of comparing and contrasting the accuracy of projections provides a useful lens for understanding demographic and other issues which necessitate that approaches for developing and utilising projections can and should be different in sparsely populated areas. We provide examples of alternative approaches to projections and the analysis of errors which researchers and analysts in sparsely populated areas might apply to other jurisdictions. Andrew Taylor Copyright © 2014 Andrew Taylor. All rights reserved. Gender Disparity in Health and Food Expenditure in India among Elderly Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:31:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/150105/ The present paper aims to shed light on the changing pattern of gender disparity in health and food expenditure over time among the elderly in India. National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) data of the 55th (1999-2000) and the 64th (2007-2008) rounds on household consumer expenditure have been used for this study. Further, the paper examines whether change in the sex composition of the elderly in households contributes to a change in health and food expenditure. The findings indicate wide gender disparity in food and health care expenditure, with that of males being higher than that of their female counterparts; the gap, however, is narrowing with time. The compositional shift in sex among the elderly in households contributes significantly to the decline in household health and the increase in household food expenditure over time. Barsharani Maharana and Laishram Ladusingh Copyright © 2014 Barsharani Maharana and Laishram Ladusingh. All rights reserved. Estimation and Comparison of Immunization Coverage under Different Sampling Methods for Health Surveys Thu, 07 Aug 2014 07:19:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/850479/ Immunization currently averts an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year in all age groups. Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide. In this study, the estimates of hepatitis B vaccine coverage are compared among three sampling plans namely, sampling and sampling method under cluster sampling and systematic random sampling schemes. The data has been taken from the survey “Comparison of Two Survey Methodologies to Estimate Total Vaccination Coverage” sponsored by Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. It is observed that the estimations of proportions of this vaccination coverage are significantly not different at 5% level of probability. Both sampling and sampling will be preferred to systematic sampling in estimation of hepatitis B vaccine coverage for this study population because of quick estimation and lesser cost. The cluster sampling is the most recommended method for such immunization coverage especially in a developing country. D. C. Nath and B. Patowari Copyright © 2014 D. C. Nath and B. Patowari. All rights reserved. Contraceptive Use in India: A Data Mining Approach Sun, 03 Aug 2014 09:00:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/821436/ This paper uses data mining approach to analyse patterns of contraceptive use in India by comparing contraceptive use among groups of women with distinct demographic, economic, cultural, and social characteristics. The analysis suggests that currently married, nonpregnant women aged 15–49 years in India can be classified into 13 mutually exclusive groups on the basis of six characteristics of women—surviving children, household standard of living, religion, women’s years of schooling, husbands’ education, and residence. Contraceptive use pattern in these 13 groups is essentially different and reflects the orientation of family planning efforts, especially, official family planning efforts in the country. The observed differences in the patterns of contraceptive use have important policy and programme implications in the context of universal access to family planning. Aalok Ranjan Chaurasia Copyright © 2014 Aalok Ranjan Chaurasia. All rights reserved. Beyond Networks: Health, Crime, and Migration in Mexico Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:20:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/971739/ Two rounds of a longitudinal survey from Mexico, representative at the national, urban, rural, and regional level, are used to examine the determinants of local, domestic, and international migration. Aside from the typical covariates in the migration decision, this study considers health conditions, crime, and individual’s perspectives on life as explanatory variables. Coefficient estimates for most health variables do not offer significant support to the healthy migrant hypothesis. In terms of crime, the results suggest that females respond to worsening safety conditions in Mexico by migrating domestically, but not abroad. The decision to migrate domestically or abroad for males is not statistically correlated with increases in crime. Overall, having access to international migration networks continues to play a significant role in the decision to migrate to the US. Jose N. Martinez Copyright © 2014 Jose N. Martinez. All rights reserved. Emigration, Immigration, and Skill Formation: The Case of a Midstream Country Mon, 30 Jun 2014 09:45:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/858460/ This study theoretically investigates the economy of a small country that exports skilled labor to higher developed countries and simultaneously imports unskilled labor from lower developed countries. Compared with the free immigration case, if this country adopts an optimally controlled immigration policy by imposing income tax on immigrants to maximize national income, skills formation is negatively affected and the number of domestic unskilled workers increases. Moreover, under certain conditions, we can assert the counter-intuitive possibility that the wage rate of domestic unskilled workers may decrease but that of skilled workers may increase owing to the restriction of foreign unskilled workers. Kenji Kondoh Copyright © 2014 Kenji Kondoh. All rights reserved. Increasing Longevity and the New Demography of Death Tue, 24 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/521523/ The world is ageing at both an individual and population levels and population ageing is truly a global phenomenon, the only notable region of exception being sub-Saharan Africa, which remains relatively young in demographic terms. At an individual level, life expectancies at birth have increased at the global level from 47 years in the mid-20th century to around 70 years today and are expected to rise to 76 years by the mid-21st century. At the population level, the proportion of the world’s population aged 60 years and over has increased from 8 percent in the mid-20th century to 12 percent, and by 2050, it is expected to reach 21 percent. In Europe, ageing has continued at a slower rate, but with the emergence of increasing numbers of centenarians. This paper outlines the transition using data from England and Wales from a demography of young death in the mid-19th century to a demography of survival in the 20th century and on to the new demography of old death in the 21st century. The paper provides evidence that it is likely that ages at death will continue to increase, with more and more people reaching extreme old age. At the same time, it is likely that life expectancies at birth will continue to rise, taking life expectancy at birth in England and Wales to 100 years or more by the end of the 21st century. The new 21st century demography of death will lead to annual numbers of deaths far in excess of previous maxima. George W. Leeson Copyright © 2014 George W. Leeson. All rights reserved.