Table of Contents
International Journal of Proteomics
Volume 2014, Article ID 594761, 12 pages
Research Article

Mapping and Identification of the Urine Proteome of Prostate Cancer Patients by 2D PAGE/MS

1Research Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology “Georgi D Efremov”, Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Krste Misirkov 2, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
2University Clinic for Urology, University Clinical Centre “Mother Theresa”, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
3Institute of Pathology, Medical Faculty, University of “St. Cyril and Methodius”, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia

Received 26 June 2014; Revised 1 August 2014; Accepted 2 August 2014; Published 20 August 2014

Academic Editor: Petra Zürbig

Copyright © 2014 Sanja Kiprijanovska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Proteome analysis of the urine has shown that urine contains disease-specific information for a variety of urogenital system disorders, including prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to determine the protein components of urine from PCa patients. Urine from 8 patients with clinically and histologically confirmed PCa was analyzed by conventional 2D PAGE. The MS identification of the most prominent 125 spots from the urine map revealed 45 distinct proteins. According to Gene Ontology, the identified proteins are involved in a variety of biological processes, majority of them are secreted (71%), and half of them are enzymes or transporters. Comparison with the normal urine proteome revealed 11 proteins distinctive for PCa. Using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, we have found 3 proteins (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase rififylin, tumor protein D52, and thymidine phosphorylase) associated with cellular growth and proliferation (). The top network of functional associations between 11 proteins was Cell Death and Survival, Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction, and System Development and Function . In summary, we have created an initial proteomic map of PCa patient’s urine. The results from this study provide some leads to understand the molecular bases of prostate cancer.