Table of Contents
International Journal of Proteomics
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 659241, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/659241
Research Article

Comparative Proteomic Study Reveals the Molecular Aspects of Delayed Ocular Symptoms Induced by Sulfur Mustard

1Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Ophthalmology, Chemical Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received 14 July 2014; Accepted 10 December 2014

Academic Editor: Christian Huck

Copyright © 2015 Zaiddodine Pashandi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. Sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating agent which produces ocular, respiratory, and skin damages. Eyes are the most sensitive organ to SM due to high intrinsic metabolic and rapid turnover rate of corneal epithelium and aqueous-mucous interfaces of the cornea and conjunctiva. Here we investigate underlying molecular mechanism of SM exposure delayed effects which is still a controversial issue after about 30 years. Materials and Methods. Following ethical approval, we have analyzed serum proteome of ten severe SM exposed male patients with delayed eye symptoms with two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The western blotting was used to confirm the proteins that have been identified. Results. We have identified thirteen proteins including albumin, haptoglobin, and keratin isoforms as well as immunoglobulin kappa chain which showed upregulation while transferrin and alpha 1 antitrypsin revealed downregulation in these patients in comparison with healthy control group. Conclusions. Our results elevated participation of free iron circulatory imbalance and local matrix-metalloproteinase activity in development of delayed ocular symptoms induced by SM. It demonstrates that SM induced systemic toxicity leads to some serum protein changes that continually and gradually exacerbate the ocular surface injuries.