International Journal of Proteomics http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Miniaturized Digestion and Extraction of Surface Proteins from Candida albicans following Treatment with Histatin 5 for Mass Spectrometry Analysis Thu, 01 Dec 2016 12:21:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2016/9812829/ A common approach to isolate surface proteins from fungal and bacterial cells is to perform a proteolytic cleavage of proteins on the surface of intact cells suspended in solution. This paper describes miniaturization of this technique, in which cells are adhered on glass surfaces, and all sample treatments are conducted at μL volumes. Specifically, Candida albicans cells were attached onto HSA-coated glass slides. By depositing the appropriate reagent solutions on the adhered cells, we successfully performed cell washing, treatment with antifugal peptide, Histatin 5, and a proteolysis on intact cells with trypsin. The resulting peptides were subsequently analysed by mass spectrometry. In general, the data obtained was similar to that collected with suspended cells in much larger sample volumes. However, our miniaturized workflow offers the benefit of greatly reducing the consumption of cells and reagents. Shirley Fan, Eduardo B. Moffa, Yizhi Xiao, Walter L. Siqueira, and Ken K.-C. Yeung Copyright © 2016 Shirley Fan et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Differential Proteins in Response to Aqueous Extract of Quercus infectoria Gall in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Mon, 05 Sep 2016 13:55:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2016/4029172/ The aim of this study is to analyze the differential proteins in MRSA ATCC 33591 treated with aqueous extract from Q. infectoria gall. Protein extracts were obtained from MRSA cells by sonication and were separated by 2D polyacrylamide gels. Protein spots of interest were extracted from the gels and identified using LC-ESI-QTOF MS. The concentration of Q. infectoria extract used for 2D-gel electrophoresis was subinhibitory concentration. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the extract against MRSA was 19.50 μg/mL with bacteriostatic action at 1x MIC from time-kill assay. However, the extract exhibited dose-dependent manner and was bactericidal at 4x MIC with more than 3 log10 CFU/mL reduction at 4 h. 2D-GE map showed that 18 protein spots were upregulated and another six were downregulated more than twofold () after treatment with subinhibitory concentration. Out of six proteins being downregulated, four proteins were identified as ferritin and catalase, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase subunit E2, and succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta. Seven upregulated proteins which have been successfully identified were 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain protein, formate C-acetyltransferase, 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase FabZ, NAD dependent epimerase/dehydratase family protein, and phosphopantothenoyl cysteine decarboxylase. It is postulated that the main mechanism of aqueous extract from gall of Q. infectoria was most likely involved in energy metabolism and protein stress. Radhiah Khairon, Noraziah Mohamad Zin, Mariati Abdul Rahman, and Dayang Fredalina Basri Copyright © 2016 Radhiah Khairon et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Urea Based Protein Extraction from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for Shotgun Proteomics Wed, 31 Aug 2016 11:04:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2016/4324987/ Urea based protein extraction of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue provides the most efficient workflow for proteomics due to its compatibility with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). This study optimizes the use of urea for proteomic analysis of clinical FFPE tissue. A series of protein extraction conditions manipulating temperature and buffer composition were compared to reduce carbamylation introduced by urea and increase protein detection. Each extraction was performed on a randomized pair of serial sections of homogenous FFPE tissue and analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS. Results were compared in terms of yield, missed cleavages, and peptide carbamylation. Lowering extraction temperature to 60°C decreased carbamylation at the cost of decreased protein detection and yield. Protein extraction for at least 20 minutes at 95°C followed by 60°C for 2 hours maximized total protein yield while maintaining protein detection and reducing carbamylation by 7.9%. When accounting for carbamylation during analysis, this modified extraction temperature provides equivalent peptide and protein detection relative to the commercially available Qproteome® FFPE Tissue Kit. No changes to buffer composition containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, and 1 M ammonium bicarbonate resulted in improvements to control conditions. Optimized urea in-solution digestion provides an efficient workflow with maximized yields for proteomic analysis of clinically relevant FFPE tissue. Stephen A. Luebker and Scott A. Koepsell Copyright © 2016 Stephen A. Luebker and Scott A. Koepsell. All rights reserved. S-Nitrosylation Proteome Profile of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Human Heart Failure Thu, 18 Aug 2016 16:28:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2016/1384523/ Nitric oxide (NO) protects the heart against ischemic injury; however, NO- and superoxide-dependent S-nitrosylation (S-NO) of cysteines can affect function of target proteins and play a role in disease outcome. We employed 2D-GE with thiol-labeling FL-maleimide dye and MALDI-TOF MS/MS to capture the quantitative changes in abundance and S-NO proteome of HF patients (versus healthy controls, /group). We identified 93 differentially abundant (59-increased/34-decreased) and 111 S-NO-modified (63-increased/48-decreased) protein spots, respectively, in HF subjects (versus controls, fold-change ≥1.5, ). Ingenuity pathway analysis of proteome datasets suggested that the pathways involved in phagocytes’ migration, free radical production, and cell death were activated and fatty acid metabolism was decreased in HF subjects. Multivariate adaptive regression splines modeling of datasets identified a panel of proteins that will provide >90% prediction success in classifying HF subjects. Proteomic profiling identified ATP-synthase, thrombospondin-1 (THBS1), and vinculin (VCL) as top differentially abundant and S-NO-modified proteins, and these proteins were verified by Western blotting and ELISA in different set of HF subjects. We conclude that differential abundance and S-NO modification of proteins serve as a mechanism in regulating cell viability and free radical production, and THBS1 and VCL evaluation will potentially be useful in the prediction of heart failure. Sue-jie Koo, Heidi M. Spratt, Kizhake V. Soman, Susan Stafford, Shivali Gupta, John R. Petersen, Maria P. Zago, Muge N. Kuyumcu-Martinez, Allan R. Brasier, John E. Wiktorowicz, and Nisha Jain Garg Copyright © 2016 Sue-jie Koo et al. All rights reserved. Label-Free Proteomic Analysis of Flavohemoglobin Deleted Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mon, 11 Jan 2016 08:35:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2016/8302423/ Yeast flavohemoglobin, YHb, encoded by the nuclear gene YHB1, has been implicated in the nitrosative stress responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is still unclear how S. cerevisiae can withstand this NO level in the absence of flavohemoglobin. To better understand the physiological function of flavohemoglobin in yeast, in the present study a label-free differential proteomics study has been carried out in wild-type and YHB1 deleted strains of S. cerevisiae grown under fermentative conditions. From the analysis, 417 proteins in Y190 and 392 proteins in ΔYHB1 were identified with high confidence. Interestingly, among the differentially expressed identified proteins, 40 proteins were found to be downregulated whereas 41 were found to be upregulated in ΔYHB1 strain of S. cerevisiae ( value < 0.05). The differentially expressed proteins were also classified according to gene ontology (GO) terms. The most enriched and significant GO terms included nitrogen compound biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, translational regulation, and protein folding. Interactions of differentially expressed proteins were generated using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database. This is the first report which offers a more complete view of the proteome changes in S. cerevisiae in the absence of flavohemoglobin. Chiranjit Panja, Rakesh K.S. Setty, Gopal Vaidyanathan, and Sanjay Ghosh Copyright © 2016 Chiranjit Panja et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Integrity of Mitochondria Alters by Potassium Chloride Thu, 10 Dec 2015 12:35:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2015/647408/ Potassium chloride (KCl) has been commonly used in homogenization buffer and procedures of protein extraction. It is known to facilitate release of membrane-associated molecules but the higher concentration of KCl may affect the integrity of mitochondria by breaching the electrostatic force between the lipids and proteins. Therefore, it has been intended to explore the effect of KCl on mitochondrial proteome. The mitochondria were isolated from the mice liver and sub-fractionated into mitochondrial matrix and outer mitochondrial membrane fraction. The fractions were analysed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and 2D-PAGE. The analysis of ultrastructure and protein profiles by MALDI-MS and data-mining reveals KCl-associated alterations in the integrity of mitochondria and its proteome. The mitochondrial membrane, cristae, and the matrix proteins appear altered under the influence of KCl. Suman Mishra and Rajnikant Mishra Copyright © 2015 Suman Mishra and Rajnikant Mishra. All rights reserved. Human Urine Proteomics: Analytical Techniques and Clinical Applications in Renal Diseases Sun, 29 Nov 2015 11:34:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2015/782798/ Urine has been in the center of attention among scientists of clinical proteomics in the past decade, because it is valuable source of proteins and peptides with a relative stable composition and easy to collect in large and repeated quantities with a noninvasive procedure. In this review, we discuss technical aspects of urinary proteomics in detail, including sample preparation, proteomic technologies, and their advantage and disadvantages. Several recent experiments are presented which applied urinary proteome for biomarker discovery in renal diseases including diabetic nephropathy, immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, lupus nephritis, membranous nephropathy, and acute kidney injury. In addition, several available databases in urinary proteomics are also briefly introduced. Shiva Kalantari, Ameneh Jafari, Raheleh Moradpoor, Elmira Ghasemi, and Ensieh Khalkhal Copyright © 2015 Shiva Kalantari et al. All rights reserved. A Multicenter Trial Defining a Serum Protein Signature Associated with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:25:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2015/587250/ Background. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease with rapid tumor progression and poor prognosis. This study was motivated by the lack of sensitive and specific PDAC biomarkers and aimed to identify a diagnostic, serum protein signature for PDAC. Methods. To mimic a real life test situation, a multicenter trial comprising a serum sample cohort, including 338 patients with either PDAC or other pancreatic diseases (OPD) and controls with nonpancreatic conditions (NPC), was analyzed on 293-plex recombinant antibody microarrays targeting immunoregulatory and cancer-associated antigens. Results. Serum samples collected from different hospitals were analyzed and showed that (i) sampling from five different hospitals could not be identified as a preanalytical variable and (ii) a multiplexed biomarker signature could be identified, utilizing up to 10 serum markers that could discriminate PDAC from controls, with sensitivities and specificities in the 91–100% range. The first protein profiles associated with the location of the primary tumor in the pancreas could also be identified. Conclusions. The results demonstrate that robust enough serum signatures could be identified in a multicenter trial, potentially contributing to the development of a multiplexed biomarker immunoassay for improved PDAC diagnosis. Anna S. Gerdtsson, Núria Malats, Anna Säll, Francisco X. Real, Miquel Porta, Petter Skoog, Helena Persson, Christer Wingren, and Carl A. K. Borrebaeck Copyright © 2015 Anna S. Gerdtsson et al. All rights reserved. Hypoxia Strongly Affects Mitochondrial Ribosomal Proteins and Translocases, as Shown by Quantitative Proteomics of HeLa Cells Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:05:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2015/678527/ Hypoxia is an important and common characteristic of many human tumors. It is a challenge clinically due to the correlation with poor prognosis and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Understanding the biochemical response to hypoxia would facilitate the development of novel therapeutics for cancer treatment. Here, we investigate alterations in gene expression in response to hypoxia by quantitative proteome analysis using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with LCMS/MS. Human HeLa cells were kept either in a hypoxic environment or under normoxic conditions. 125 proteins were found to be regulated, with maximum alteration of 18-fold. In particular, three clusters of differentially regulated proteins were identified, showing significant upregulation of glycolysis and downregulation of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and translocases. This interaction is likely orchestrated by HIF-1. We also investigated the effect of hypoxia on the cell cycle, which shows accumulation in G1 and a prolonged S phase under these conditions. Implications. This work not only improves our understanding of the response to hypoxia, but also reveals proteins important for malignant progression, which may be targeted in future therapies. Paula A. Bousquet, Joe Alexander Sandvik, Magnus Ø. Arntzen, Nina F. Jeppesen Edin, Stine Christoffersen, Ute Krengel, Erik O. Pettersen, and Bernd Thiede Copyright © 2015 Paula A. Bousquet et al. All rights reserved. A Proteomic Characterization of Bordetella pertussis Clinical Isolates Associated with a California State Pertussis Outbreak Sun, 24 May 2015 06:20:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2015/536537/ Bordetella pertussis (Bp) is the etiologic agent of pertussis (whooping cough), a highly communicable infection. Although pertussis is vaccine preventable, in recent years there has been increased incidence, despite high vaccine coverage. Possible reasons for the rise in cases include the following: Bp strain adaptation, waning vaccine immunity, increased surveillance, and improved clinical diagnostics. A pertussis outbreak impacted California (USA) in 2010; children and preadolescents were the most affected but the burden of disease fell mainly on infants. To identify protein biomarkers associated with this pertussis outbreak, we report a whole cellular protein characterization of six Bp isolates plus the pertussis acellular vaccine strain Bp Tohama I (T), utilizing gel-free proteomics-based mass spectrometry (MS). MS/MS tryptic peptide detection and protein database searching combined with western blot analysis revealed three Bp isolates in this study had markedly reduced detection of pertactin (Prn), a subunit of pertussis acellular vaccines. Additionally, antibody affinity capture technologies were implemented using anti-Bp T rabbit polyclonal antisera and whole cellular proteins to identify putative immunogens. Proteome profiling could shed light on pathogenesis and potentially lay the foundation for reduced infection transmission strategies and improved clinical diagnostics. Yulanda M. Williamson, Hercules Moura, Jennifer Whitmon, Adrian R. Woolfitt, David M. Schieltz, Jon C. Rees, Stephanie Guo, Heather Kirkham, Daniel Bouck, Edwin W. Ades, Maria Lucia Tondella, George M. Carlone, Jacquelyn S. Sampson, and John R. Barr Copyright © 2015 Yulanda M. Williamson et al. All rights reserved. SILAC-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients Tue, 28 Apr 2015 07:32:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2015/841769/ Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoma, is a heterogeneous disease where the outcome for patients with early relapse or refractory disease is very poor, even in the era of immunochemotherapy. In order to describe possible differences in global protein expression and network patterns, we performed a SILAC-based shotgun (LC-MS/MS) quantitative proteomic analysis in fresh-frozen tumor tissue from two groups of DLBCL patients with totally different clinical outcome: (i) early relapsed or refractory and (ii) long-term progression-free patients. We could identify over 3,500 proteins; more than 1,300 were quantified in all patients and 87 were significantly differentially expressed. By functional annotation analysis on the 66 proteins overexpressed in the progression-free patient group, we found an enrichment of proteins involved in the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Also, five proteins from actin cytoskeleton regulation, applied in a supervised regression analysis, could discriminate the two patient groups. In conclusion, SILAC-based shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis appears to be a powerful tool to explore the proteome in DLBCL tumor tissue. Also, as progression-free patients had a higher expression of proteins involved in the actin cytoskeleton protein network, such a pattern indicates a functional role in the sustained response to immunochemotherapy. Ulla Rüetschi, Martin Stenson, Sverker Hasselblom, Herman Nilsson-Ehle, Ulrika Hansson, Henrik Fagman, and Per-Ola Andersson Copyright © 2015 Ulla Rüetschi et al. All rights reserved. Quantitative Proteomics and Lipidomics Analysis of Endoplasmic Reticulum of Macrophage Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mon, 16 Feb 2015 06:18:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2015/270438/ Even though endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress associated with mycobacterial infection has been well studied, the molecular basis of ER as a crucial organelle to determine the fate of Mtb is yet to be established. Here, we have studied the ability of Mtb to manipulate the ultrastructural architecture of macrophage ER and found that the ER-phenotypes associated with virulent (H37Rv) and avirulent (H37Ra) strains were different: a rough ER (RER) with the former against a smooth ER (SER) with the later. Further, the functional attributes of these changes were probed by MS-based quantitative proteomics (133 ER proteins) and lipidomics (8 phospholipids). Our omics approaches not only revealed the host pathogen cross-talk but also emphasized how precisely Mtb uses proteins and lipids in combination to give rise to characteristic ER-phenotypes. H37Ra-infected macrophages increased the cytosolic Ca2+ levels by attenuating the ATP2A2 protein and simultaneous induction of PC/PE expression to facilitate apoptosis. However, H37Rv inhibited apoptosis and further controlled the expression of EST-1 and AMRP proteins to disturb cholesterol homeostasis resulting in sustained infection. This approach offers the potential to decipher the specific roles of ER in understanding the cell biology of mycobacterial infection with special reference to the impact of host response. Najmuddin Mohd Saquib, Shilpa Jamwal, Mukul Kumar Midha, Hirdya Narain Verma, and Venkatasamy Manivel Copyright © 2015 Najmuddin Mohd Saquib et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Proteomic Study Reveals the Molecular Aspects of Delayed Ocular Symptoms Induced by Sulfur Mustard Wed, 21 Jan 2015 13:46:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2015/659241/ Objective. Sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating agent which produces ocular, respiratory, and skin damages. Eyes are the most sensitive organ to SM due to high intrinsic metabolic and rapid turnover rate of corneal epithelium and aqueous-mucous interfaces of the cornea and conjunctiva. Here we investigate underlying molecular mechanism of SM exposure delayed effects which is still a controversial issue after about 30 years. Materials and Methods. Following ethical approval, we have analyzed serum proteome of ten severe SM exposed male patients with delayed eye symptoms with two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The western blotting was used to confirm the proteins that have been identified. Results. We have identified thirteen proteins including albumin, haptoglobin, and keratin isoforms as well as immunoglobulin kappa chain which showed upregulation while transferrin and alpha 1 antitrypsin revealed downregulation in these patients in comparison with healthy control group. Conclusions. Our results elevated participation of free iron circulatory imbalance and local matrix-metalloproteinase activity in development of delayed ocular symptoms induced by SM. It demonstrates that SM induced systemic toxicity leads to some serum protein changes that continually and gradually exacerbate the ocular surface injuries. Zaiddodine Pashandi, Neda Saraygord-Afshari, Hossein Naderi-Manesh, and Mostafa Naderi Copyright © 2015 Zaiddodine Pashandi et al. All rights reserved. A Survey of Computational Intelligence Techniques in Protein Function Prediction Thu, 11 Dec 2014 00:10:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/845479/ During the past, there was a massive growth of knowledge of unknown proteins with the advancement of high throughput microarray technologies. Protein function prediction is the most challenging problem in bioinformatics. In the past, the homology based approaches were used to predict the protein function, but they failed when a new protein was different from the previous one. Therefore, to alleviate the problems associated with homology based traditional approaches, numerous computational intelligence techniques have been proposed in the recent past. This paper presents a state-of-the-art comprehensive review of various computational intelligence techniques for protein function predictions using sequence, structure, protein-protein interaction network, and gene expression data used in wide areas of applications such as prediction of DNA and RNA binding sites, subcellular localization, enzyme functions, signal peptides, catalytic residues, nuclear/G-protein coupled receptors, membrane proteins, and pathway analysis from gene expression datasets. This paper also summarizes the result obtained by many researchers to solve these problems by using computational intelligence techniques with appropriate datasets to improve the prediction performance. The summary shows that ensemble classifiers and integration of multiple heterogeneous data are useful for protein function prediction. Arvind Kumar Tiwari and Rajeev Srivastava Copyright © 2014 Arvind Kumar Tiwari and Rajeev Srivastava. All rights reserved. Combined Phosphoproteomics and Bioinformatics Strategy in Deciphering Drug Resistant Related Pathways in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Thu, 13 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/390781/ Because of the absence of a clear therapeutic target for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), conventional chemotherapy is the only available systemic treatment option for these patients. Despite chemotherapy treatment, TNBC patients still have worse prognosis when compared with other breast cancer patients. The study is to investigate unique phosphorylated proteins expressed in chemoresistant TNBC cell lines. In the current study, twelve TNBC cell lines were subjected to drug sensitivity assays against chemotherapy drugs docetaxel, doxorubicin, gemcitabine, and cisplatin. Based on their half maximal inhibitory concentrations, four resistant and two sensitive cell lines were selected for further analysis. The phosphopeptides from these cells were enriched with TiO2 beads and fractionated using strong cation exchange. 1,645 phosphoprotein groups and 9,585 unique phosphopeptides were identified by a high throughput LC-MS/MS system LTQ-Orbitrap. The phosphopeptides were further filtered with Ascore system and 1,340 phosphoprotein groups, 2,760 unique phosphopeptides, and 4,549 unique phosphosites were identified. Our study suggested that differentially phosphorylated Cdk5, PML, AP-1, and HSF-1 might work together to promote vimentin induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the drug resistant cells. EGFR and HGF were also shown to be involved in this process. Xinyu Deng, Morris Kohanfars, Huan Ming Hsu, Puneet Souda, Joe Capri, Julian P. Whitelegge, and Helena R. Chang Copyright © 2014 Xinyu Deng et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Flanking Secondary Structures on Amino Acid Content and Typical Lengths of 3/10 Helices Mon, 13 Oct 2014 07:38:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/360230/ We used 3D structures of a highly redundant set of bacterial proteins encoded by genes of high, average, and low GC-content. Four types of connecting bridges—regions situated between any of two major elements of secondary structure (alpha helices and beta strands)—containing a pure random coil were compared with connecting bridges containing 3/10 helices. We included discovered trends in the original “VVTAK Connecting Bridges” algorithm, which is able to predict more probable conformation for a given connecting bridge. The highest number of significant differences in amino acid usage was found between 3/10 helices containing bridges connecting two beta strands (they have increased Phe, Tyr, Met, Ile, Leu, Val, and His usages but decreased usages of Asp, Asn, Gly, and Pro) and those without 3/10 helices. The typical (most common) length of 3/10 helices situated between two beta strands and between beta strand and alpha helix is equal to 5 amino acid residues. The preferred length of 3/10 helices situated between alpha helix and beta strand is equal to 3 residues. For 3/10 helices situated between two alpha helices, both lengths (3 and 5 amino acid residues) are typical. Vladislav Victorovich Khrustalev, Eugene Victorovich Barkovsky, and Tatyana Aleksandrovna Khrustaleva Copyright © 2014 Vladislav Victorovich Khrustalev et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Analysis of Sorghum bicolor Proteome in Response to Drought Stress and following Recovery Wed, 01 Oct 2014 11:51:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/395905/ The adaptive response of Sorghum bicolor landraces from Egypt to drought stress and following recovery was analyzed using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, 2D-DIGE. Physiological measurements and proteome alterations of accession number 11434, drought tolerant, and accession number 11431, drought sensitive, were compared to their relative control values after drought stress and following recovery. Differentially expressed proteins were analysed by Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF-MS. Alterations in protein contents related to the energy balance, metabolism (sensu Mewes et al. 1997), and chaperons were the most apparent features to elucidate the differences between the drought tolerant and sensitive accessions. Further alterations in the levels of proteins related to transcription and protein synthesis are discussed. Christoph Jedmowski, Ahmed Ashoub, Tobias Beckhaus, Thomas Berberich, Michael Karas, and Wolfgang Brüggemann Copyright © 2014 Christoph Jedmowski et al. All rights reserved. Dimerization of Peptides by Calcium Ions: Investigation of a Calcium-Binding Motif Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/153712/ We investigated calcium-binding motifs of peptides and their recognition of active functionalities for coordination. This investigation generates the fundamentals to design carrier material for calcium-bound peptide-peptide interactions. Interactions of different peptides with active calcium domains were investigated. Evaluation of selectivity was performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry by infusing solutions containing two different peptides (P1 and P2) in the presence of calcium ions. In addition to signals for monomer species, intense dimer signals are observed for the heterodimer ions ( represents the noncovalent binding of calcium with the peptide) in the positive ion mode and for ions in the negative ion mode. Monitoring of the dissociation from these mass selected dimer ions via the kinetic method provides information on the calcium affinity order of different peptide sequences. Azadeh Jamalian, Evert-Jan Sneekes, Lennard J. M. Dekker, Mario Ursem, Theo M. Luider, and Peter C. Burgers Copyright © 2014 Azadeh Jamalian et al. All rights reserved. Mapping and Identification of the Urine Proteome of Prostate Cancer Patients by 2D PAGE/MS Wed, 20 Aug 2014 06:43:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/594761/ Proteome analysis of the urine has shown that urine contains disease-specific information for a variety of urogenital system disorders, including prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to determine the protein components of urine from PCa patients. Urine from 8 patients with clinically and histologically confirmed PCa was analyzed by conventional 2D PAGE. The MS identification of the most prominent 125 spots from the urine map revealed 45 distinct proteins. According to Gene Ontology, the identified proteins are involved in a variety of biological processes, majority of them are secreted (71%), and half of them are enzymes or transporters. Comparison with the normal urine proteome revealed 11 proteins distinctive for PCa. Using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, we have found 3 proteins (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase rififylin, tumor protein D52, and thymidine phosphorylase) associated with cellular growth and proliferation (). The top network of functional associations between 11 proteins was Cell Death and Survival, Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction, and System Development and Function . In summary, we have created an initial proteomic map of PCa patient’s urine. The results from this study provide some leads to understand the molecular bases of prostate cancer. Sanja Kiprijanovska, Sotir Stavridis, Oliver Stankov, Selim Komina, Gordana Petrusevska, Momir Polenakovic, and Katarina Davalieva Copyright © 2014 Sanja Kiprijanovska et al. All rights reserved. A Method to Determine Lysine Acetylation Stoichiometries Sun, 20 Jul 2014 09:28:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/730725/ Lysine acetylation is a common protein posttranslational modification that regulates a variety of biological processes. A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the difficulty in measuring the proportion of lysine residues that are acetylated. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of protein lysine acetylation. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy for ~750 acetylated peptides from mammalian cell lysates. Furthermore, the acetylation on N-terminal tail of histone H4 was cross-validated by treating cells with sodium butyrate, a potent deacetylase inhibitor, and comparing changes in stoichiometry levels measured by our method with immunoblotting measurements. Of note we observe that acetylation stoichiometry is high in nuclear proteins, but very low in mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. In summary, our method opens new opportunities to study in detail the relationship of lysine acetylation levels of proteins with their biological functions. Ernesto S. Nakayasu, Si Wu, Michael A. Sydor, Anil K. Shukla, Karl K. Weitz, Ronald J. Moore, Kim K. Hixson, Jong-Seo Kim, Vladislav A. Petyuk, Matthew E. Monroe, Ljiljiana Pasa-Tolic, Wei-Jun Qian, Richard D. Smith, Joshua N. Adkins, and Charles Ansong Copyright © 2014 Ernesto S. Nakayasu et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of Spontaneous Regression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Lesions Grades 2 and 3 by Proteomic Analysis Sun, 15 Jun 2014 08:48:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/129064/ Regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2-3 to CIN 1 or less is associated with immune response as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies. Proteomic analysis of water-soluble proteins in supernatants of biopsy samples with LC-MS (LTQ-Orbitrap) was used to identify proteins predictive of CIN2-3 lesions regression. CIN2-3 in the biopsies and persistence (CIN2-3) or regression (≤CIN1) in follow-up cone biopsies was validated histologically by two experienced pathologists. In a learning set of 20 CIN2-3 (10 regressions and 10 persistence cases), supernatants were depleted of seven high abundance proteins prior to unidimensional LC-MS/MS protein analysis. Mean protein concentration was 0.81 mg/mL (range: 0.55–1.14). Multivariate statistical methods were used to identify proteins that were able to discriminate between regressive and persistent CIN2-3. The findings were validated in an independent test set of 20 CIN2-3 (10 regressions and 10 persistence cases). Multistep identification criteria identified 165 proteins. In the learning set, zinc finger protein 441 and phospholipase D6 independently discriminated between regressive and persistent CIN2-3 lesions and correctly classified all 20 patients. Nine regression and all persistence cases were correctly classified in the validation set. Zinc finger protein 441 and phospholipase D6 in supernatant samples detected by LTQ-Orbitrap can predict regression of CIN2-3. Kai-Erik Uleberg, Irene Tveiterås Øvestad, Ane Cecilie Munk, Cato Brede, Bianca van Diermen, Einar Gudlaugsson, Emiel A. M. Janssen, Anne Hjelle, and Jan P. A. Baak Copyright © 2014 Kai-Erik Uleberg et al. All rights reserved. Characterisation of the Proteome of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Canicola as a Resource for the Identification of Common Serovar Immunogenic Proteins Tue, 27 May 2014 06:22:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/572901/ Over 230 serovars of Leptospira interrogans have been identified; however few have been completely characterised. The aim of this study was to characterise the proteome of serovar Canicola and to compare this against the serovars of Copenhageni and Pomona. 2D-LC/MS analysis identified 1653 Leptospira proteins in serovar Canicola; 60 of these proteins were common to Copenhageni and Pomona, 16 of which are known to be immunogenic. This study provides the first reported proteome for serovar Canicola and suggests that proteomic comparison of different serovars could be used as a tool for identification of novel target molecules for vaccine development. P. C. Humphryes, M. E. Weeks, and N. G. Coldham Copyright © 2014 P. C. Humphryes et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Photosynthesis and Carbon Metabolism Favor Arsenic Tolerance in Artemisia annua, a Medicinal Plant as Revealed by Homology-Based Proteomics Tue, 29 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/163962/ This paper provides the first proteomic evidence of arsenic (As) tolerance and interactive regulatory network between primary and secondary metabolism in the medicinal plant, Artemisia annua. While chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic rate depicted mild inhibition, there was a significant enhancement in PSI activity, whole chain, ATP, and NADPH contents in 100 μM As treatments compared to the control plants. However, a decrease in the above variables was recorded under 150 μM treatments. Proteomic decoding of the survival strategy of A. annua under As stress using 2-DE followed by MALDI-MS/MS revealed a total of 46 differentially expressed protein spots. In contrast to other plants where As inhibits photosynthesis, A. annua showed appreciable photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and allocation of carbon resources at 100 μM As concentration. While an increased accumulation of ATP synthase, ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase, and FeS-rieske proteins supported the operation of cyclic electron transport, mdr ABC transporter protein and pcs gene might be involved in As detoxification. The most interesting observation was an increased accumulation of LEAFY like novel protein conceivably responsible for an early onset of flowering in A. annua under As stress. This study not only affirmed the role of energy metabolism proteins but also identified potential candidates responsible for As tolerance in plants. Rashmi Rai, Sarita Pandey, Alok Kumar Shrivastava, and Shashi Pandey Rai Copyright © 2014 Rashmi Rai et al. All rights reserved. In-Depth Profiling of the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Proteome for Clinical Blood Proteomics Mon, 03 Mar 2014 09:17:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/129259/ Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are an easy accessible cellular part of the blood organ and, along with platelets, represent the only site of active gene expression in blood. These cells undergo immunophenotypic changes in various diseases and represent a peripheral source of monitoring gene expression and posttranslational modifications relevant to many diseases. Little is known about the source of many blood proteins and we hypothesise that release from PBMCs through active and passive mechanisms may account for a substantial part of the plasma proteome. The use of state-of-the-art proteomic profiling methods in PBMCs will enable minimally invasive monitoring of disease progression or response to treatment and discovery of biomarkers. To achieve this goal, detailed mapping of the PBMC proteome using a sensitive, robust, and quantitative methodological setup is required. We have applied an indepth gel-free proteomics approach using tandem mass tags (TMT), unfractionated and SCX fractionated PBMC samples, and LC-MS/MS with various modulations. This study represents a benchmark in deciphering the PBMC proteome as we provide a deep insight by identifying 4129 proteins and 25503 peptides. The identified proteome defines the scope that enables PBMCs to be characterised as cellular major biomarker pool within the blood organ. Saša Končarević, Christopher Lößner, Karsten Kuhn, Thorsten Prinz, Ian Pike, and Hans-Dieter Zucht Copyright © 2014 Saša Končarević et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Heavy Labeled (SIL) Peptide versus SILAC Protein Internal Standards for LC-MS/MS Quantification of Hepatic Drug Transporters Tue, 25 Feb 2014 07:36:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/451510/ We studied the precision of quantification of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in human livers by surrogate peptide based LC-MS/MS approach using two different internal standards: stable isotope labeled peptide (SIL) versus stable isotope labeled protein (SILAC). The SIL peptides were procured commercially and the SILAC proteins were generated in-house by labeling arginine and/or lysine residues in cells expressing these transporters. Liver tissue was homogenized and the membrane fraction was isolated. The membranes were trypsin digested and the peptides were analyzed using LC-MS/MS under optimized conditions. The precision in the quantification of proteins in three independently trypsin digested samples from each liver was calculated as the standard deviation of the log transformed protein concentration. The precision of the SIL internal standard method was either slightly (, paired t-test) better than that of the SILAC method (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and P-gp) or not different (OATP2B1). Trypsin digestion, as measured by the response of the labeled peptide derived from the SILAC protein, was consistent across liver samples. These results indicate that when maximum trypsin digestion is ensured, the SIL internal standard method can be used with confidence for quantification of drug transporters. Bhagwat Prasad and Jashvant D. Unadkat Copyright © 2014 Bhagwat Prasad and Jashvant D. Unadkat. All rights reserved. Protein-Protein Interaction Detection: Methods and Analysis Mon, 17 Feb 2014 12:30:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/147648/ Protein-protein interaction plays key role in predicting the protein function of target protein and drug ability of molecules. The majority of genes and proteins realize resulting phenotype functions as a set of interactions. The in vitro and in vivo methods like affinity purification, Y2H (yeast 2 hybrid), TAP (tandem affinity purification), and so forth have their own limitations like cost, time, and so forth, and the resultant data sets are noisy and have more false positives to annotate the function of drug molecules. Thus, in silico methods which include sequence-based approaches, structure-based approaches, chromosome proximity, gene fusion, in silico 2 hybrid, phylogenetic tree, phylogenetic profile, and gene expression-based approaches were developed. Elucidation of protein interaction networks also contributes greatly to the analysis of signal transduction pathways. Recent developments have also led to the construction of networks having all the protein-protein interactions using computational methods for signaling pathways and protein complex identification in specific diseases. V. Srinivasa Rao, K. Srinivas, G. N. Sujini, and G. N. Sunand Kumar Copyright © 2014 V. Srinivasa Rao et al. All rights reserved. A Colorimetric Method for Monitoring Tryptic Digestion Prior to Shotgun Proteomics Mon, 10 Feb 2014 09:11:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/125482/ Tryptic digestion is an important preanalytical step in shotgun proteomics because inadequate or excessive digestion can result in a failed or incomplete experiment. Unfortunately, this step is not routinely monitored before mass spectrometry because methods available for protein digestion monitoring either are time/sample consuming or require expensive equipment. To determine if a colorimetric method (ProDM Kit) can be used to identify the extent of tryptic digestion that yields the best proteomics outcome, plasma and serum digested for 8 h and 24 h were screened with ProDM, Bioanalyzer, and LC/MS/MS, and the effect of digestion on the number of proteins identified and sequence coverage was compared. About 6% and 16% less proteins were identified when >50% of proteins were digested in plasma and serum, respectively, compared to when ~46% of proteins were digested. Average sequence coverage for albumin, haptoglobin, and serotransferrin after 2 h, 8 h, and 24 h digestion was 52%, 45%, and 45% for serum and 54%, 47%, and 42% for plasma, respectively. This paper reiterates the importance of optimizing the tryptic digestion step and demonstrates the extent to which ProDM can be used to monitor and standardize protein digestion to achieve better proteomics outcomes. Richard I. Somiari, Kutralanathan Renganathan, Stephen Russell, Steven Wolfe, Florentina Mayko, and Stella B. Somiari Copyright © 2014 Richard I. Somiari et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Alendronate on Proteome of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:46:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2014/532953/ Cancer is a life threatening disorder effecting 11 million people worldwide annually. Among various types of cancers, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a higher rate of mortality and is the fifth leading cause of cancer related deaths around the world. Many chemotherapeutic drugs have been used for the treatment of HCC with many side effects. These drugs are inhibitors of different cell regulatory pathways. Mevalonate (MVA) pathway is an important cellular cascade vital for cell growth. A variety of inhibitors of MVA pathway have been reported for their anticancerous activity. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are members of a family involved in the treatment of skeletal complications. In recent years, their anticancer potential has been highlighted. Current study focuses on exploring the effects of alendronate (ALN), a nitrogen containing BP, on hepatocellular carcinoma cell line using genomic and proteomics approach. Our results identified ten differentially expressed proteins, of which five were up regulated and five were down regulated in ALN treated cells. Furthermore, we also performed gene expression analysis in treated and control cell lines. The study may help in understanding the molecular mechanism involved in antitumor activity of ALN, identification of possible novel drug targets, and designing new therapeutic strategies for HCC. Amber Ilyas, Zehra Hashim, Nadia Naeem, Kanwal Haneef, and Shamshad Zarina Copyright © 2014 Amber Ilyas et al. All rights reserved. Periodontal Proteomics: Wonders Never Cease! Tue, 31 Dec 2013 13:35:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2013/850235/ Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, as they are integral components of the physiological metabolic pathways of cells. Periodontal tissues comprise multicompartmental groups of interacting cells and matrices that provide continuous support, attachment, proprioception, and physical protection for the teeth. The proteome map, that is, complete catalogue of the matrix and cellular proteins expressed in alveolar bone, cementum, periodontal ligament, and gingiva, is to be explored for more in-depth understanding of periodontium. The ongoing research to understand the signalling pathways that allow cells to divide, differentiate, and die in controlled manner has brought us to the era of proteomics. Proteomics is defined as the study of all proteins including their relative abundance, distribution, posttranslational modifications, functions, and interactions with other macromolecules, in a given cell or organism within a given environment and at a specific stage in the cell cycle. Its application to periodontal science can be used to monitor health status, disease onset, treatment response, and outcome. Proteomics can offer answers to critical, unresolved questions such as the biological basis for the heterogeneity in gingival, alveolar bone, and cemental cell populations. Harpreet Singh Grover, Shalini Kapoor, and Neha Saksena Copyright © 2013 Harpreet Singh Grover et al. All rights reserved. The Human Urinary Proteome Fingerprint Database UPdb Wed, 09 Oct 2013 15:53:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2013/760208/ The use of human urine as a diagnostic tool has many advantages, such as ease of sample acquisition and noninvasiveness. However, the discovery of novel biomarkers, as well as biomarker patterns, in urine is hindered mainly by a lack of comparable datasets. To fill this gap, we assembled a new urinary fingerprint database. Here, we report the establishment of a human urinary proteomic fingerprint database using urine from 200 individuals analysed by SELDI-TOF (surface enhanced laser desorption ionisation-time of flight) mass spectrometry (MS) on several chip surfaces (SEND, HP50, NP20, Q10, CM10, and IMAC30). The database currently lists 2490 unique peaks/ion species from 1172 nonredundant SELDI analyses in the mass range of 1500 to 150000. All unprocessed mass spectrometric scans are available as “.xml” data files. Additionally, 1384 peaks were included from external studies using CE (capillary electrophoresis)-MS, MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation), and CE-MALDI hybrids. We propose to use this platform as a global resource to share and exchange primary data derived from MS analyses in urinary research. Holger Husi, Janice B. Barr, Richard J. E. Skipworth, Nathan A. Stephens, Carolyn A. Greig, Henning Wackerhage, Rona Barron, Kenneth C. H. Fearon, and James A. Ross Copyright © 2013 Holger Husi et al. All rights reserved.