Synthesis of Glycerol Carbonate from Glycerol and Dimethyl Carbonate Catalyzed by Solid Base Catalyst Derived from Waste Carbide SlagRead the full article
International Journal of Polymer Science publishes research on the chemistry and physics of macromolecules, including the synthesis and characterisation of polymeric materials and polymerisation processes, both theoretical and experimental.
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Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hydrogels: The Old and New Functional Materials
Hydrogels have three-dimensional network structures, high water content, good flexibility, biocompatibility, and stimulation response, which have provided a unique role in many fields such as industry, agriculture, and medical treatment. Poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA hydrogel is one of the oldest composite hydrogels. It has been extensively explored due to its chemical stability, nontoxic, good biocompatibility, biological aging resistance, high water-absorbing capacity, and easy processing. PVA-based hydrogels have been widely investigated in drug carriers, articular cartilage, wound dressings, tissue engineering, and other intelligent materials, such as self-healing and shape-memory materials, supercapacitors, sensors, and other fields. In this paper, the discovery, development, preparation, modification methods, and applications of PVA functionalized hydrogels are reviewed, and their potential applications and future research trends are also prospected.
A Novel Study of Synthesis and Experimental Investigation on Hybrid Biocomposites for Biomedical Orthopedic Application
In recent years the biocomposites are highly utilized in the biomedical applications, due to excellent strength as well as weight ratio. A lot of natural fibers, namely, flax, hemp, jute, kenaf, and sisal are cheaply available in colossal amount. Aim of this study, a novel approach, is executed for construction of biomedical orthopedic parts by using mixture of natural fibers. This work handled biocomposites such as flax fiber (FX), chicken feather fiber (CF), kenaf fiber (KF), and rice husk fiber (RH) effectively. From all these composites, four sets of mixed fibers with reinforcement of polylactic acid polymer used for creating orthopedic parts. The hand-lay-based methodology is undertaken for preparation of hybrid biocomposites. Parameters involved for this study are fiber types (KF + RH, RH + FX, FX + CF, and CF + KF), laminate count (2, 4, 6 and 8) infill density (30%, 60%, 90%, and 120%), and raster angle (0/60, 30/120, 50/140, and 70/160). Finding of this work is dimensional accuracy, flexural strength, and shore hardness that are analyzed by L16 orthogonal array. ANOVA statistical analysis is enhanced and enlightens the results of flexural strength and source hardness of the biocomposites. Amongst in four parameters, the fiber type parameter extremely contributes such as 40.50% in the flexural analysis. Similarly, laminate count parameter highly contributes such as 31.01% in the shore hardness analysis.
Role of Nanofibers in Encapsulation of the Whole Cell
In the field of biomaterial research, the electrospinning device is now used to manufacture nanofibers that can be used to encapsulate whole microorganisms such as bacterial cells, funguses, viruses, and even spores. The nanofiber encapsulated cells will have greater significance in the coming future because of their wide variety of applications in various fields. Nanofibers act as microorganism reservoir systems that enhance their properties such as viability, controlled release of products, biomedical applications, and bioremediation. The effect of electrostatic forces on a droplet of liquid polymer or polymer solution is based on electrospinning. Electrospun nanofibers act as ideal native extracellular matrices for microorganisms and have also had a tremendous advantage in drug delivery systems where modern research is still underway. During electrospinning, nearly all microorganisms may be inserted into a polymer matrix that forms a composite nanofiber. The evolution in electrospinning technique over the past few decades has become promising. New ideas have been generated to enhance the techniques and improve the overall applications and properties of nanofibers. This technique has been transformed by the advent of the electrospinning machine. The electrospun nanofibers can be chemically characterized by a wide variety of procedures such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Electrospinning has various applications, for example, in wastewater treatment, tissue engineering, food industry, drug delivery, agriculture, and cosmetics. Nanofiber encapsulation of microorganisms increased the shelf life of the microorganisms; the cells remain viable for months. It also helps in the control release of bacterial products. The present review demonstrates the role of nanofiber in the encapsulation of the whole cell.
Preparation and Properties of Anti-Nail-Biting Lacquers Containing Shellac and Bitter Herbal Extract
The purpose of the present investigation was to formulate and evaluate anti-nail-biting lacquers consisting of bitter herbal extracts. The hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa were determined for phytochemical constituents, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, anti-inflammatory activities, and cytotoxicities. Anti-nail-biting lacquers were prepared by using herbal extracts (bittering agent), shellac (film forming polymer), ethanol (volatile solvent), and other indispensable additives with continuous stirring. Thus, attempts to enhance the film property and bitterness are accomplished by using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30) as a copolymer and varying concentrations of herbal extracts. Good accepted formulations were established for drying time, pH, viscosity, smoothness of film, film strength, water resistant, and solubility in simulated saliva and evaluated their bitterness in human volunteers. The results revealed that phytochemical constituents including tannins, glycosides, reducing sugars, alkaloids, terpenoids, and flavonoids were found present in both extracts while saponins were only detected in A. paniculata extract. Although T. crispa extract exhibited a significantly higher () total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than A. paniculata extract, it showed lower protein denaturation inhibition property than A. paniculata extract. Because of the potentials of both extracts without cytotoxicity, anti-nail-biting lacquers containing either A. paniculata extract or T. crispa extract were developed and evaluated. Drying time of formulations was 6-11 min with visually seen glossiness of formulation. Formulations of the nail lacquer showed good pH, viscosity, smoothness of film, film strength, water resistant, and solubility in simulated saliva. The formulations displaying no significant cytotoxicity effect on CRL-2076 cells were assessed on healthy human volunteers to compare bitterness and film characteristics. The results revealed that the optimized formulation containing A. paniculata extract could successfully achieve good film forming property and bitterness release which is considered promising for stopping nail biting.
Cefuroxime-Loaded Hydrogels for Prevention and Treatment of Bacterial Contamination of Open Wounds
Dextran/Sulfodextran-graft-polyacrylamide- and polyacrylamide-based hydrogels were synthesized by radical polymerization and loaded with cefuroxime to obtain antimicrobial wound dressings. Antibiotic release from the antibiotic-loaded hydrogels into an aqueous solution was studied by the HPLC-UV method. It is shown that cefuroxime-loaded Dextran/Sulfodextran-graft-polyacrylamide hydrogels release the antibiotic more slowly compared to polyacrylamide hydrogel with the same density of cross-links. Antibacterial activity of the synthesized materials was tested in vitro against wild strains of S. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella spp. The possibility of using the obtained antimicrobial hydrogels for the treatment of infected wounds was confirmed in vivo in a rat model.
Magnetic Property and Therapeutic Effect of a New Co(II) Complex on Liver Cancer by Regulating the Expression of miRNA31
Employing the flexible hexacarboxylate ligand of 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine hexaacetic acid (H6TTHA) to assemble with Co(NO3)2·6H2O, we have acquired a novel coordination compound, i.e., [Co2(H2TTHA)(H2O)]n·6n(H2O) (1). The analysis of single X-ray diffraction indicated that the H2TTHA2- ligand μ5-bridges connected the Co(II) ions into a two-dimensional layered architecture. Moreover, the magnetic property of 1 was also investigated between 2 and 300 K under 1000 Oe applied magnetic field. The novel compound’s inhibitory activity against the viability of cancer cell was determined through CCK-8 assay, and the expression of miRNA31 in liver cancer cells was detected via the real-time RT-PCR.