Generation and Characterization of an Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) and Its Application in the Surface Modification of Polyethylene TerephthalateRead the full article
International Journal of Polymer Science publishes research on the chemistry and physics of macromolecules, including the synthesis and characterisation of polymeric materials and polymerisation processes, both theoretical and experimental.
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Conducting Polymer-Based Composite Materials for Therapeutic Implantations: From Advanced Drug Delivery System to Minimally Invasive Electronics
Conducting polymer-based composites have recently becoming popular in both academic research and industrial practices due to their high conductivity, ease of process, and tunable electrical properties. The multifunctional conducting polymer-based composites demonstrated great application potential for in vivo therapeutics and implantable electronics, including drug delivery, neural interfacing, and minimally invasive electronics. In this review article, the state-of-the-art conducting polymer-based composites in the mentioned biological fields are discussed and summarized. The recent progress on the synthesis, structure, properties, and application of the conducting polymer-based composites is presented, aimed at revealing the structure-property relationship and the corresponding functional applications of the conducting polymer-based composites. Furthermore, key issues and challenges regarding the implantation performance of these composites are highlighted in this paper.
Preparation and Characterization of a Novel Terbium Complex Coordinated with 10-Undecenoic Acid for UV-Cured Coatings
A UV-cured composite containing a rare earth complex was prepared for this study. First, the photoluminescent terbium complex was synthesized with a long-chain unsaturated fatty acid (10-Undecenoic acid) by a solution precipitation method, resulting in the 10-UA-Tb(III) complex. Its structure was proven by FTIR, elemental analysis, XRD, and TGA. The results indicated that the organic acid ligand successfully coordinated with the Tb3+ ion and that the complex had a chelate bidentate structure. The emission spectrum of the 10-UA-Tb(III) complex indicated that the complex can emit a bright green light with the unique luminescence of the Tb3+ ion. Furthermore, the luminescence properties of complexes with different ratios of Tb3+ and ligand were studied, and the ratio of Tb3+ and the ligand had an obvious impact on the luminescence intensity of the 10-UA-Tb(III) complex. Subsequently, the prepared rare earth complex was doped into a UV-cured coating in different proportions to obtain a UV-cured composite. The morphology of the rare earth UV-cured composite was observed by SEM. The images showed that the rare earth complex was dispersed uniformly in the polymer matrix. Moreover, the composites could emit fluorescence. Additionally, it has good thermal stability and compatibility with the resin. Therefore, these composites should have potential applications in UV curable materials, such as luminescence coatings.
Polypyrrole-Chitosan-CaFe2O4 Layer Sensor for Detection of Anionic and Cationic Dye Using Surface Plasmon Resonance
A polypyrrole-chitosan-calcium ferrite nanocomposite was prepared using the electrodeposition method. The prepared layer was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the X-ray diffraction technique, and field emission electron microscopy. The thickness of the thin layers was in the range of 2.8 nm to 59.5 nm, and the refractive index of the composite layer was in the range of to . Detection and removal of cationic and anionic dyes, such as methylene blue and methylene orange, are subject of great interest for protecting environmental water. The layer composite was used to detect methylene orange and methylene blue using the surface plasmon resonance technique. Consequently, the polypyrrole-chitosan-calcium-ferrite composite layer interacted with the anionic and cationic dyes. The resonance angle shift for the detection of the cationic dye was larger than the resonance angle shift for the anionic dye. The sensor limit was achieved from a sensogram at about 0.01 ppm.
Ionotropic Gelation Synthesis of Chitosan-Alginate Nanodisks for Delivery System and In Vitro Assessment of Prostate Cancer Cytotoxicity
We report on the synthesis of chitosan-alginate nanodisks (Cs-Al NDs) using a simple approach consisting of the ionotropic gelation method. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) was used as crosslinking agent to promote the electrostatic interaction between amine groups the chitosan and hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of alginate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanodisks where agglomeration was observed due to the electrostatic interaction between the functional groups. Furthermore, dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that the hydrodynamic size of the Cs-Al NDs was 227 nm and 152 nm in pH 1.2 and pH 7.4, respectively, which is in agreement with the information observed in the SEM images. The chemical structure is presented mainly the amine and carboxyl groups due to the presence of chitosan and alginate in the nanodisks, respectively, which allow the electrostatic interaction through N-H linkages. According to the X-ray diffraction, we found that the Cs-Al NDs exhibited the typical structure of chitosan and alginate, which lead the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes. We also evaluated the encapsulation of amoxicillin in the nanodisk, obtaining a loading efficiency of 74.98%, as well as a maximum in vitro release amount of 63.2 and 52.3% at pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively. Finally, the cytotoxicity effect of the Cs-Al nanodisks was performed in human prostatic epithelial PWR-1E and Caucasian prostate adenocarcinoma PC-3 cell lines, in which the cell viability was above 80% indicating low inhibition and determining the Cs-Al NDs as a promising technology for controlled delivery systems.
Application of Eudragit RS 30D as a Potential Drug Release Retardant of Acetaminophen and Caffeine for Prolonged Duration of Comfort
The objective of the study is to formulate an extended release matrix tablet dosage form containing acetaminophen and caffeine by applying polymer technology which will relieve all kinds of pain for about 12 hours. Considering the fact that there is no such formulation available in the pharmaceutical market, it is expected that this drug could be an effective introduction. Hydrophobic polymers have a great application in pharmaceutical sciences as they retard the release of water-soluble drugs and give prolonged effect. Eudragit RS 30D was used to prepare 3 formulations (EF1, EF2, and EF3) containing varying concentrations of polymer, through the wet granulation method. Each tablet contained 1000 mg of acetaminophen and 130 mg of caffeine including other suitable excipients. All pharmacopeial and nonpharmacopeial tests were conducted to determine the quality of dosage form and to identify optimized formulation among EF1-EF3. Dissolution was conducted on similar gastric conditions through which different kinetic models were applied using DDSolver. For 12 hrs of dissolution, caffeine was released from EF1, EF2, and EF3 with the percentage release in the range from 99.85% to 100.65%, 99.32% to 100.28%, and 98.09% to 100.77%, respectively. For acetaminophen, the percent release was from 99.81% to 100.91%, 100.24% to 100.91%, and 86.81% to 95.73% for EF1-EF3, respectively. Results concluded that EF2 is the most optimized drug having all physicochemical quality control tests within the specified limits. On applying different models like zero-order, Hixson-Crowell, Higuchi, and Korsmeyer-Peppas upon use, it is concluded that the formulation follows Korsmeyer-Peppas as it was the best-fitted model with the value closest to 0.999. EF2 is considered as a potential drug to be manufactured that will give prolonged relief against pain and will decrease compliance issues related to dosing frequency.
Characterization of Polysaccharides Extracted from Sargassum fusiforme and Its Effective Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy via Enhancing Antioxidant Capacity
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common complication in patients with coronary arteriography, and oxidative stress is involved in the CIN pathogenesis. Sargassum fusiforme (SF) is a brown seaweed with medicinal value, and its polysaccharides have good antioxidant activity. In this study, the crude polysaccharides (cSFP-C) were extracted by cold water, precipitated by ethanol, purified by CaCl2, and detected with high contents of sulfate radical and fucose. cSFP-C is composed of glucose, glucuronic acid, xylose, rhamnose, mannose, galactose, and fucose with a molar ratio of 1.0 : 0.4 : 5.6 : 1.2 : 1.7 : 12.3 : 56.1. The cSFP-C has the typical absorption of polysaccharides. Antioxidation assays in vitro showed that cSFP-C exhibited superoxide radical scavenging activity which was better than the hot water-extracted crude polysaccharides (cSFP-H). 20 rats were divided into 4 groups (): sham group; CIN group; CIN+cSFP-C group, and cSFP-C group. The CIN+cSFP-C group and cSFP-C group were pretreated intragastrically with cSFP-C at a dose of 9.45 g/kg twice daily for 5 consecutive days. Then, the CIN group and CIN+cSFP-C group were given indomethacin to develop CIN. The in vivo results showed that cSFP-C could decrease blood creatinine and urea nitrogen, inhibiting pathological injury in the renal tissues. The MDA content of renal tissues was decreased, while the activity of SOD was increased. The crude sulfated polysaccharides extracted from S. fusiforme have a renoprotective effect on oxidative stress to alleviate the kidney injury in CIN rats.