Evaluation of 4-tert-Butyl-Benzhydrylamine Resin (BUBHAR) as an Alternative Solid Support for Peptide SynthesisRead the full article
International Journal of Polymer Science publishes research on the chemistry and physics of macromolecules, including the synthesis and characterisation of polymeric materials and polymerisation processes, both theoretical and experimental.
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Effectual Anticancer Potentiality of Loaded Bee Venom onto Fungal Chitosan Nanoparticles
Chitosan and its nanoparticles (NPs) could be extracted from numerous fungal species and used as effectual carriers for bioactive compounds. The fungal chitosan (FC) was innovatively acquired from Fusarium oxysporum grown mycelia, characterized and used for NP synthesis and loading with bee venom (BV). The nano-FC (NFC) had 192.4 nm mean NP diameter, 38.22% loading capacity, and 92.42% entrapment efficiency. BV release from NFC was pH and time dependent; burst BV release was detected at the first 6 h, followed by gradual releases up to 30 h. The in vitro anticancer potentiality valuation, of NFC, BV, and NFC/BV nanoconjugates against HeLa cervix carcinoma, revealed that they all had potent dose-dependent anticancer activity; BV/NFC nanoconjugates were the most effective with . The fluorescent staining of treated HeLa cells with BV/NFC nanoconjugates, with DAPI and acridine orange/propidium iodide combination, indicated the appearance of early apoptosis, secondary apoptosis, and secondary necrosis markers and their increment with exposure prolongation. The production of NFC from F. oxysporum and their loading with BV are strongly counseled for production of potent natural antitumor agent with augmented activity against cervix carcinoma.
Evaluation of the Properties of Cellulose Ester Films that Incorporate Essential Oils
Films made from cellulose esters are often used as bio-based food packaging materials. In this work, we studied the incorporation of nine essential oils into cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate propionate, and cellulose acetate butyrate. The essential oils were derived from lime, nutmeg, eugenol, pimenta berry, rosemary, petitgrain, coffee, anise, and trans-cinnamaldehyde. In almost all cases, the addition of essential oils to cellulose ester reduced tensile strength and Young’s modulus but increased elongation at break. Thus, an essential oil acted like a plasticizer that enhanced the flexibility of the polymer. Essential oils containing limonene and pinenes (e.g., from lime and nutmeg) gave the strongest plasticizing action, whereas essentials oils containing fatty acids (e.g., from coffee) were the weakest plasticizers. The water barrier property was improved the most when essential oils were added to cellulose acetate; however, different cellulose ester/essential oil combinations showed different effects. Whereas most of the essential oils decreased the transparency of the films, eugenol, pimento berry, and anise were notable exceptions. Thus, depending on a specific application, a particular polymer/EO combination can be used to give the optimal performance.
Mucilage Extracted from Dragon Fruit Peel (Hylocereus undatus) as Flocculant for Treatment of Dye Wastewater by Coagulation and Flocculation Process
Dye wastewater from textile industries shows very low biodegradability due to high molecular weight and complex structures of dyes. So far, the most simple method for treatment of this type of wastewater has been coagulation and flocculation. This study determined the removal of turbidity and other pollutants from dye wastewater by mucilage extracted from the peel of dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) and its effect in reducing synthetic chemical polyaluminum chloride (PACl) used in coagulation and flocculation (CF) process. The removal of turbidity in a sequent CF process using PACl and dragon fruit mucilage was investigated based on Jar tests. Maximum coagulation efficiencies of PACl were typically observed at pH 4.0-6.0 and PACl concentrations of about 100-150 mg/L depending on types of wastewater, whereas optimal settling times were 30-60 minutes, respectively. The addition of dragon fruit mucilage (0.5-50 mg/L) after PACl (75-245 mg/L) resulted in turbidity removal efficiencies up to 95%. The addition of mucilage extracted from dragon fruit peels was proven to increase turbidity removal efficiency and decrease PACl use. The increase of turbidity removal was often estimated at 10-32%, whereas PACl used was about 3-10% less compared to total PACl needed for obtaining comparable efficiency when used alone. The flocculation activity of mucilage was also compared to polyacrylamide (PAM)—a synthetically organic flocculant. Since the peel of a dragon fruit is an abundant agriculture waste in Vietnam, using its extracted mucilage as a flocculant is an environmentally friendly method.
Dynamic Mechanical, Dielectrical, and Rheological Analysis of Polyethylene Terephthalate/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites Prepared by Melt Processing
The polyethylene terephthalate/carbon nanotube (PET/CNT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing using a twin screw extruder. CNT content was varied up to 5 wt. %. Morphology as well as dynamic mechanical, calorimetric, and rheological properties of the PET/CNT nanocomposites was investigated. Morphological studies indicated that CNT bundles are regularly distributed within the polymer matrix creating a connected network structure which significantly affects the nanocomposite properties. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis revealed increase in storage and loss modules of the investigated PET nanocomposites by increasing the content of CNTs. Differential scanning calorimetry results demonstrated increase in crystallinity of the investigated PET nanocomposites upon addition of the nanofiller. Rheological studies demonstrated that CNT addition up to 5 wt. % caused increment in complex viscosity and storage modulus. Rheological percolation threshold was observed to be 0.83 wt. % of CNT concentration, respectively.
Multicomponent Nanocomposites for Complex Anticancer Therapy: Effect of Aggregation Processes on Their Efficacy
Multicomponent nanocomposites for anticancer therapy were prepared, characterized, and tested for their antitumor efficacy. The water-soluble star-like dextran-graft-polyacrylamide copolymer was used as a nanoplatform for the creation of polymer-based multicomponent drug delivery systems for photodynamic and combined (photodynamic+chemotherapy) antitumor therapy. The three-component nanocomposites with incorporated gold nanoparticles and photosensitizer and the four-component ones additionally loaded by Doxorubicin into polymer nanoplatform were studied at 25 and 37°C by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Nanocomposites were tested for their photodynamic cytotoxicity for the cell line of breast cancer MCF-7/S. Three-component nanocomposites demonstrated higher efficacy than the four-component ones. The decrease in the activity of the four-component systems is explained by the aggregation process caused by the introduction of an additional component, which leads to a decrease in the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of the polymer macromolecule.
Morphological and Electrical Properties of Nanocellulose Compounds and Its Application on Capacitor Assembly
The rise for innovation in the electrical industry is strongly driven by development of new materials. Features of new materials are changing design paradigms for engineers. In this paper, the electrical properties of films of cellulose nanocrystals were measured. It was found that humidity affects the dielectric strength on the cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The dielectric strength was similar to the value of the industrial dielectric paper. The addition of plasticizer improved the flexibility of the material but lowered the dielectric strength. The films of CNC had an ordered arrangement, as suggested by the iridescence shown by them. The humidity content of the films was measured by thermogravimetric analysis. The CNC film was used for assembling a capacitor and compared to a capacitor assembled with dielectric paper.