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International Journal of Polymer Science publishes research on the chemistry and physics of macromolecules, including the synthesis and characterisation of polymeric materials and polymerisation processes, both theoretical and experimental.
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Antimicrobial Edible Film Prepared from Bacterial Cellulose Nanofibers/Starch/Chitosan for a Food Packaging Alternative
As a contribution to the growing demand for environmentally friendly food packaging films, this work produced and characterized a biocomposite of disintegrated bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers and tapioca starch/chitosan-based films. Ultrasonication dispersed all fillers throughout the film homogeneously. The highest fraction of dried BC nanofibers (0.136 g) in the film resulted in the maximum tensile strength of 4.7 MPa. 0.136 g BC nanofiber addition to the tapioca starch/chitosan matrix increased the thermal resistance (the temperature of maximum decomposition rate from 307 to 317°C), moisture resistance (after 8 h) by 8.9%, and water vapor barrier (24 h) by 27%. All chitosan-based films displayed antibacterial activity. This characterization suggests that this environmentally friendly edible biocomposite film is a potential candidate for applications in food packaging.
Preparation and Characterization of Polyamidoamine G2.0-Hematin as a Biocatalyst for Fabricating Catecholic Gelatin Hydrogel
In this study, we report that an enzyme-mimicking biocatalyst polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer G2.0-hematin (G2.0-He) was fabricated successfully. The chemical structure of G2.0-He was verified by 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. G2.0-He exhibited a size distribution from to and a zeta potential from 32.5 mV to 25.6 mV along with the enhancement of the hematin conjugation degree. The relative activity of G2.0-He was evaluated based on pyrogallol oxidation reactions at . The results showed that G2.0-He was more stable than horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme in high H2O2 concentrations. The HRP-mimic ability of G2.0-He was also confirmed by the catalyzation when preparing catecholic gelatin hydrogels under mild conditions. Moreover, our results also revealed that these hydrogels performed with excellent cytocompatibility in an in vitro study and could be used as a potential scaffold for adhesion and proliferation of fibroblast cells. The obtained results indicated that G2.0-He is a suitable platform for altering the HRP enzyme in several biomedical applications.
Effect of a Rapid Tooling Technique in a 3D Printed Part for Developing an EDM Electrode
The role of rapid tooling (RT) in additive manufacturing (AM) seems essential in improving and spreading out the vista of manufacturing proficiency. In this article, attempts were made to discover the feasibility and the accomplishments of the RT electrode in the field of electro-discharge machining (EDM). Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the AM processes adopted to fabricate the EDM electrode prototype by coating with copper. The copper is deposited on FDM-built ABS plastic component for about 1 mm through thick electroplating. The copper-coated FDM (CCF) and solid copper (SC) electrodes are used to conduct experiments on a die-sinking EDM machine using tool alloy steel as a workpiece. The CCF polymer electrode can be efficiently used in EDM operations as the build time of any complex shape was substantially reduced. However, the material removal rate (MRR) is far less than that of the SC electrode. It is recommended that the CCF electrode is used for semifinishing and finishing operations in which MRR happens to be less. However, CCF can get spoiled as high temperatures are generated on the machining tool, and the plastic core hardly sustains such high temperatures.
Development of Duloxetine Hydrochloride Tablets for Delayed and Complete Release Using Eudragit L 100
The purpose of the research was to optimize the preparation of duloxetine hydrochloride (duloxetine HCl) delayed release tablets. Duloxetine HCl produces a toxic substance called alpha-naphthol when duloxetine HCl is in contact with gastric fluid. Thus, duloxetine HCl when given orally needed a protective enteric coating that disable the delivery of duloxetine HCl in gastric fluid while enabling the drug delivery only in small intestine. Four different core tablets were prepared by direct compression technique, and the one which displayed quick disintegration and dissolution was chosen for enteric coating. The compressed tablets were enteric coated by dip coating technique. Since subcoating is required to safeguard the enteric coating, the core tablets were subcoated by using polymer HPMC K15M and then enteric coated with Eudragit L 100. The prepared tablets were assessed for the entire precompression and postcompression characteristics. FTIR study revealed the existence of all prominent peaks signifying its compatibility and authenticity. The in vitro studies showed that enteric-coated tablets were capable of restricting release in acidic media. The formulation F8 was optimised with 5% and 15% increase in weight of seal coat and enteric coat with good dissolution profile. Stability studies revealed that the optimized formulation was intact without any deterioration for 3 months. In conclusion, the optimized formulation could resist the drug release in acidic environment of gastrointestinal region and release the drug at a time once the tablet reaches the intestine.
Influence of Ethylene Plasma Treatment of Agave Fiber on the Cellular Morphology and Compressive Properties of Low-Density Polyethylene/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Agave Fiber Composite Foams
Agave fibers (AF) were incorporated either pristine (AFp) or surface treated by ethylene plasma (AFm) in low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) blends at a ratio of 1 : 1 and foamed by chemical means. The role of the AF content (3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 wt.%) and its surface modification on the cellular morphology and mechanical properties of LDPE/EVA/AF foams under compression is investigated herein. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, contact angle, and water suspension of AF suggest that plasma treatment using ethylene successfully modifies the surface nature of AF from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. AF and the surface treatment have an important role on the morphological properties of the foams. Composite foams reinforced with 12 wt.% AFm exhibited the highest mechanical properties improvements. At this fiber content, the composite foams enhanced 30% of the compressive modulus and 23% of the energy absorption under compression with respect to the neat polymer blend foam, as a result to the formation of more uniform cells with smaller size and the enhancement of compatibility and spatial distribution of the AFm in the polymer composite foams due to thin clusters of polyethylene-like polymer deposited on the AF surface.
Poly(ε-caprolactone)/Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Blend from Fused Deposition Modeling as Potential Cartilage Scaffolds
The scaffolds of poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PCL/PHBV) blends were fabricated from fused deposition modeling. From indirect cytotoxicity testing based on mouse fibroblasts, all scaffolds with various blend ratios were nontoxic to cells. The surface-treated scaffold with a blend ratio of 25/75 PCL/PHBV exhibited the highest proliferation of porcine chondrocytes and total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) after 21 days of culture. The scaffolds with a blend ratio of 25/75 with local pores (LP) were prepared from FDM along with a salt leaching technique using NaCl as porogens. The effect of NaOH in surface treatment on the biological property of scaffolds was investigated. The scaffolds with LP and with 1 M NaOH surface treatment exhibited the highest proliferation of cells and total GAGs after 28 days of culture. The degradation behaviors of the scaffolds were studied. The nonsurface treated, surface treated without LP, and surface treated with LP scaffolds were degraded in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) for 30 days at 37°C and 50°C for nonenzymatic condition and at 37°C for enzymatic condition. The surface treated with LP scaffold showed the highest amount of weight loss, followed by the surface treated without LP, and the nonsurface-treated scaffolds without LP, respectively. The results from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated degradation of PCL and PHBV through hydrolysis of the ester functional group. The compressive strengths of all scaffolds were sufficiently high. The results suggested that the scaffolds with the existence of LP and with surface treatment showed the highest potential for use as cartilage scaffolds.