Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2011, Article ID 301807, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/301807
Research Article

Preirradiation Graft Polymerization of Styrene in a Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) Film Investigated by Time-Resolved Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

1Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Tokai 319-1195, Japan
2Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Gunma, Takasaki 370-1292, Japan

Received 18 January 2011; Revised 3 May 2011; Accepted 1 June 2011

Academic Editor: Wen Fu Lee

Copyright © 2011 Hiroki Iwase et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Chapiro, Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems, Interscience Publishers, London, UK; John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1962.
  2. I. Smit and A. Bezjak, “Structural changes in the grafted copolymer polyethylene-styrene,” Polymer, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 590–596, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  3. T. Seguchi and N. Tamura, “Mechanism of decay of alkyl radicals in irradiated polyethylene on exposure to air as studied by electron spin resonance,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 40–44, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  4. T. R. Dargaville, G. A. George, D. J. T. Hill, and A. K. Whittaker, “High energy radiation grafting of fluoropolymers,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1355–1376, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. S. Takahashi, H. Okonogi, T. Hagiwara, and Y. Maekawa, “Preparation of polymer electrolyte membranes consisting of alkyl sulfonic acid for a fuel cell using radiation grafting and subsequent substitution/elimination reactions,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 324, no. 1-2, pp. 173–180, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. G. Gebel, F. Ottomani, J. J. Allegraud, N. Betz, and A. L. Moël, “Structural study of polystyrene grafted in irradiated polyvinylidene fluoride thin films,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, vol. 105, no. 1–4, pp. 145–149, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. Hasegawa, S. Takahashi, H. Iwase et al., “Radiation-induced graft polymerization of functional monomer into poly(ether ether ketone) film and structure-property analysis of the grafted membrane,” Polymer, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 98–106, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. A. Chapiro, “Préparation des copolymères greffés du polytetrafluoroéthylène (Teflon) par voie radiochimique,” Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 34, no. 127, pp. 481–501, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. K. Yamauchi, H. Hasegawa, T. Hashimoto, H. Tanaka, R. Motokawa, and S. Koizumi, “Direct observation of polymerization-reaction-induced molecular self-assembling process: In-situ and real-time SANS measurements during living anionic polymerization of polyisoprene-block-polystyrene,” Macromolecules, vol. 39, no. 13, pp. 4531–4539, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. Y. Zhao, H. Tanaka, N. Miyamoto, S. Koizumi, and T. Hashimoto, “Combined SANS, SEC, NMR, and UV-Vis studies of simultaneous living anionic copolymerization process: simultaneous elucidation of propagating living chains at three different length scales,” Macromolecules, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1739–1748, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. Y. Zhao, N. Miyamoto, S. Koizumi, and T. Hashimoto, “Combined SANS, SEC, NMR and UV-vis studies of simultaneous living anionic copolymerization process in a concentrated solution: elucidation of building-up processes of molecules and their self-assemblies,” Macromolecules, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 2948–2959, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. T. Terashima, R. Motokawa, S. Koizumi et al., “In situ and time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering observation of star polymer formation via arm-linking reaction in ruthenium-catalyzed living radical polymerization,” Macromolecules, vol. 43, no. 19, pp. 8218–8232, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. R. Motokawa, S. Koizumi, T. Hashimoto, M. Annaka, and T. Nakahira, “Soap-free emulsion polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol)block-poly(N- isopropylacrylamide): elucidation of specific reaction fields for quasi-living polymerization by time-resolved SANS,” Macromolecules, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 752–764, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. H. Tanaka, S. Koizumi, T. Hashimoto et al., “Combined in situ and time-resolved SANS and SAXS studies of chemical reactions at specific sites and self-assembling processes of reaction products: reduction of palladium ions in self-assembled polyamidoamine dendrimers as a template,” Macromolecules, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 4327–4337, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. S. Koizumi, Y. Zaho, Y. Tomita et al., “Bacterium organizes hierarchical amorphous structure in microbial cellulose,” European Physical Journal E, vol. 26, no. 1-2, pp. 137–142, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  16. S. Koizumi, Y. Tomita, T. Kondo, and T. Hashimoto, “What factors determine hierarchical structure of microbial cellulose—interplay among physics, chemistry and biology,” Macromolecular Symposia, vol. 279, no. 1, pp. 110–118, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. H. Tanaka, S. Koizumi, T. Hashimoto, K. Kurosaki, and S. Kobayashi, “Self-assembly of synthetic cellulose during in-vitro enzymatic polymerization process as studied by a combined small-angle scattering method,” Macromolecules, vol. 40, no. 17, pp. 6304–6315, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. S. Koizumi, H. Iwase, J. Suzuki et al., “Focusing and polarized neutron small-angle scattering spectrometer (SANS-J-II). The challenge of observation over length scales from an ångström to a micrometre,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol. 40, supplement 1, pp. s474–s479, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Asano, J. Chen, and Y. Maekawa, “Novel UV-induced photografting process for preparing poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-based proton-conducting membranes,” Journal of Polymer Science, Part A, vol. 45, no. 13, pp. 2624–2637, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. N. K. J. Symons, “Growth of single crystals of polytetrafluoroethylene from the melt,” Journal of Polymer Science Part A, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 2843–2856, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  21. T. Yamaki, K. Kobayashi, M. Asano, H. Kubota, and M. Yoshida, “Preparation of proton exchange membranes based on crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene for fuel cell applications,” Polymer, vol. 45, no. 19, pp. 6569–6573, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. D. Avnir, Ed., The Fractal Approach to Heterogeneous Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1989.
  23. S. Shimada and K. Yamamoto, “Mechanism of decay reaction of free radicals trapped in poly(tetrafluoroethylene) related with the heterogeneity in structure,” Macromolecules, vol. 36, no. 15, pp. 5661–5665, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. T. Rager, “Pre-irradiation grafting of styrene/divinylbenzene onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene) from non-solvents,” Helvetica Chimica Acta, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 1966–1981, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar