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International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 837875, 35 pages
Review Article

Cellulose-Based Bio- and Nanocomposites: A Review

1Department of Chemistry, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Bajhol-173 229, District Solan (Himachal Pradesh), India
2Grenoble Institute of Technology, The International School of Paper, Print Media and Biomaterials (Pagora), Grenoble Institute of Technology, BP 65-38402 Saint Martin d'Hères, Grenolde, France
3Department of Natural Resources, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu 18610-307, SP, Brazil
4Department of Chemistry, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Punjab, Jalandhar 144011, India
5LIPHT-ECPM, EAC (CNRS) 4375, University of Strasbourg, 25 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg Cedex 2, France
6School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK

Received 16 June 2011; Accepted 1 August 2011

Academic Editor: Jose Ramon Leiza

Copyright © 2011 Susheel Kalia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cellulose macro- and nanofibers have gained increasing attention due to the high strength and stiffness, biodegradability and renewability, and their production and application in development of composites. Application of cellulose nanofibers for the development of composites is a relatively new research area. Cellulose macro- and nanofibers can be used as reinforcement in composite materials because of enhanced mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation properties of composites. Cellulose fibers are hydrophilic in nature, so it becomes necessary to increase their surface roughness for the development of composites with enhanced properties. In the present paper, we have reviewed the surface modification of cellulose fibers by various methods. Processing methods, properties, and various applications of nanocellulose and cellulosic composites are also discussed in this paper.