Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2015, Article ID 318708, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/318708
Research Article

Investigation of Optimum Polymerization Conditions for Synthesis of Cross-Linked Polyacrylamide-Amphoteric Surfmer Nanocomposites for Polymer Flooding in Sandstone Reservoirs

1Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo 11727, Egypt
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Received 27 May 2015; Revised 22 July 2015; Accepted 22 July 2015

Academic Editor: Qinglin Wu

Copyright © 2015 A. N. El-hoshoudy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Tabary and B. Bazin, “Advances in chemical flooding,” in Proceedings of the IFP-OAPEC Joint Seminar; Improved Oil recovery (IOR) Techniques and Their Role in Boosting the Recovery Factor, Rueil-Malmaison, France, June 2007.
  2. US Department of Energy, 2008, http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/oilgas/eor/index.html.
  3. S. M. Farouq-Ali and C. D. Stahl, “Increased oil recovery by improved water flooding,” Earth and Mineral Sciences, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 25–28, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. Thomas, J. R. Scoular, B. Verkoczy, and S. M. F. Ali, “Chemical methods for heavy oil recovery,” Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 56–61, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  5. G. Bastiat, B. Grassl, and J. François, “Study of sodium dodecyl sulfate/poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles for the synthesis of thermo-associative polymers by micellar polymerization,” Polymer International, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 958–965, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. Feng, L. Billon, B. Grassl, G. Bastiat, O. Borisov, and J. François, “Hydrophobically associating polyacrylamides and their partially hydrolyzed derivatives prepared by post-modification. 2. Properties of non-hydrolyzed polymers in pure water and brine,” Polymer, vol. 46, no. 22, pp. 9283–9295, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. Zhao, J. Zhou, X. Xu et al., “Synthesis and characterization of a series of modified polyacrylamide,” Colloid and Polymer Science, vol. 287, no. 2, pp. 237–241, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. T. Jiang, J. Lu, H. Y. Wang, B. H. Wang, H. J. Han, and H. J. Wu, “Analysis on toxic and hazardous substances of polymer surfactants used in oilfields,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 805-806, pp. 1344–1347, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. A. Shashkina, Y. D. Zaroslov, V. A. Smirnov et al., “Hydrophobic aggregation in aqueous solutions of hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide in the vicinity of overlap concentration,” Polymer, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 2289–2293, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Camail, A. Margaillan, I. Martin, A. L. Papailhou, and J. L. Vernet, “Synthesis of N-alkyl- and N-arylalkylacrylamides and micellar copolymerization with acrylamide,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1853–1863, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Vossoughi and C. S. Buller, “Permeability modification by in-situ gelation with a newly discovered biopolymer,” SPE Reservoir Engineering, vol. 6, no. 4, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. E. J. Manrique, V. E. Muci, and E. M. Gurfinkel, “EOR field experiences in carbonate reservoirs in the United States,” SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, vol. 10, no. 6, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. M. K. Dabbous, “Displacement of polymers in waterflooded porous media and its effect on subsequent micellar flood,” Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, vol. 17, no. 5, SPE 6203, p. 358, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. J. R. Platt and L. James, “Poly-(alpha-alkoxy) acrylamide and poly-(alpha-alkoxy) acrylamide complexes,” CA 1153497 A1 Patent, 1981.
  15. W. D. Hunter, “Process for secondary recovery,” US Patent no. 4,297,226, 1981.
  16. R. Cao, L. Cheng, and P. Lian, “Flow behavior of viscoelastic polymer solution in porous media,” Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 41–50, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Murduchowitz, “Secondary recovery process,” US Patent, No. 4, 323,463, 1982.
  18. M. Morvan, P. Moreau, R. Tabary, and B. Bazin, “Desorbants for enhanced oil recovery,” Patent WO 2013110774 A1, 2013.
  19. C. L. McCormick, W.-M. Wan, P. D. Pickett, and D. A. Savin, “Structurally controlled ‘polysoaps’ via RAFT copolymerization of AMPS and n-dodecyl acrylamide for environmental remediation,” Polymer Chemistry, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 819–827, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Du and L. Guan, “Field-scale polymer flooding: lessons learnt and experiences gained during past 40 years,” in Proceedings of the SPE International Petroleum Conference, SPE 91787, Puebla, Mexico, 2004.
  21. W. Zou, J. Peng, Y. Yang, L. Zhang, B. Liao, and F. Xiao, “Effect of nano-SiO2 on the performance of poly(MMA/BA/MAA)/EP,” Materials Letters, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 725–729, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. A. R. Mahdavian, M. Ashjari, and A. B. Makoo, “Preparation of poly (styrene–methyl methacrylate)/SiO2 composite nanoparticles via emulsion polymerization. An investigation into the compatiblization,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 336–344, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. K. Yang-Chuan, W. Guang-Yao, and W. Yi, “Preparation, morphology and properties of nanocomposites of polyacrylamide copolymers with monodisperse silica,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 2448–2457, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Flaaten, Q. P. Nguyen, G. A. Pope, and J. Zhang, “A systematic laboratory approach to low-cost, high-performance chemical flooding,” in Proceedings of the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, SPE 73803, 2, 915, 2008.
  25. T. Zhang, M. Roberts, S. L. Bryant, and C. Huh, “Foams and emulsions stabilized with nanoparticles for potential conformance control applications,” in Proceedings of the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, SPE-121744-MS, The Woodlands, Tex, USA, April 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. B. Ju and T. Fan, “Experimental study and mathematical model of nanoparticle transport in porous media,” Powder Technology, vol. 192, no. 2, pp. 195–202, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Z. Abidin, T. Puspasari, and W. A. Nugroho, “Polymers for enhanced oil recovery technology,” Procedia Chemistry, vol. 4, pp. 11–16, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. B. Gao, H. Guo, J. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Preparation of hydrophobic association polyacrylamide in a new micellar copolymerization system and its hydrophobically associative property,” Macromolecules, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 2890–2897, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Reb, K. Margarit-Puri, M. Klapper, and K. Müllen, “Polymerizable and non polymerizable isophthalic acid derivatives as surfactants in emulsion polymerization,” Macromolecules, vol. 33, no. 21, pp. 7718–7723, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  30. A. Guyot, “Advances in reactive surfactants,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 108-109, pp. 3–22, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. J. Zou, P. W. Zhao, Y. Lei et al., “Preparation and performance of a novel water-soluble cationic polymer containing β-cyclodextrin,” Chemical Engineering & Technology, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1820–1826, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Z. Ye, M. Feng, S. Gou, M. Liu, Z. Huang, and T. Liu, “Hydrophobically associating acrylamide-based copolymer for chemically enhanced oil recovery,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 2901–2911, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W. Sun, G. Zhang, L. Pan, H. Li, and A. Shi, “Synthesis, characterization, and flocculation properties of branched cationic polyacrylamide,” International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 2013, Article ID 397027, 10 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Yuan, Q.-F. Luo, J.-Y. Hu, S.-L. Ong, and W.-J. Ng, “A study on arsenic removal from household drinking water,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1731–1744, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. N. El-hoshoudy, S. E. M. Desouky, M. Y. El-kady, A. M. Al-sabagh, M. H. Betiha, and S. Mahmoud, “Evaluation of solution and rheological properties for hydrophobically associated polyacrylamide copolymer as a promised enhanced oil recovery candidate,” International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Management Research, vol. 7, no. 2, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  36. Y. Z. Zhao, J. Z. Zhou, X. H. Xu et al., “Synthesis and characterization of a series of modified polyacrylamide,” Colloid and Polymer Science, vol. 287, no. 2, pp. 237–241, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Hayakawa and L. L. Hench, “AM1 study on infra-red spectra of silica clusters modified by fluorine,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 262, no. 1–3, pp. 264–270, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. Odian, Principles of Polymerization, John Wiley & Sons, 4th edition, 2004.
  39. X. K. Zhao, S. Xu, and J. H. Fendler, “Semiconductor particles formed at monolayer surfaces,” Langmuir, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 520–524, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. S. F. Danúbia, A. L. Thaysa, A. S. A. Kátia, and S. A. Elmo, “Sonochemical synthesis of cooper II sulfide nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in polyvinyl chloride matrix,” in Proceedings of the International Nuclear Atlantic Conference (INAC '13), Recife, Brazil, 2013.
  41. P. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Chen, H. Yu, Z. Qi, and K. Li, “Preparation and solution characteristics of a novel hydrophobically associating terpolymer for enhanced oil recovery,” Journal of Solution Chemistry, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 447–457, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. X.-J. Xu and F. Chen, “Semi-continuous emulsion copolymerization of butyl methacrylate with polymerizable anionic surfactants,” Polymer, vol. 45, no. 14, pp. 4801–4810, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. O. Okay, “Self-healing hydrogels formed via hydrophobic interactions,” in Supramolecular Polymer Networks and Gels, vol. 268 of Advances in Polymer Science, pp. 101–142, Springer, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. Z. Chen, X. Zhao, Z. Wang, and M. Fu, “A comparative study of inorganic alkaline/polymer flooding and organic alkaline/polymer flooding for enhanced heavy oil recovery,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 469, pp. 150–157, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y.-H. Dai, F.-P. Wu, M.-Z. Li, and E.-J. Wang, “Properties and influence of hydrophobically associating polyacrylamide modified with 2-phenoxylethylacrylate,” Frontiers of Materials Science in China, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 113–118, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Li, F.-P. Wu, and E.-J. Wang, “Hydrophobically associating polyacrylamides modified by a novel self-associative cationic monomer,” Chinese Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 137–145, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. W. Xue, I. W. Hamley, V. Castelletto, and P. D. Olmsted, “Synthesis and characterization of hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides and some observations on rheological properties,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 47–56, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. Ye, R. Huang, J. Wu, and H. Hoffmann, “Synthesis and rheological behavior of poly[acrylamide-acrylic acid-N-(4-butyl)phenylacrylamide] hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes,” Colloid and Polymer Science, vol. 282, no. 4, pp. 305–313, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Bera, A. Mandal, K. Ojha, and T. Kumar, “Characterization of surfactant stabilized nanoemulsion and its use in enhanced oil recovery,” in Proceedings of the SPE International Oilfield Nanotechnology Conference and Exhibition, SPE-155406-MS, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, June 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar