Table 5: Examples of ALG oligosaccharides with biological activity and pharmaceutical application.

CompoundMechanism of actionBiological activity and pharmaceutical application

(ALG oligosaccharide)
Regulation of mucus viscosity by induction alterations in mucin surface charge, formation porosity of the mucin networks in cystic fibrosis sputum;
eradication bacterial and fungal lung infections by modification of biofilm structure together with growth inhibition, improvement the efficiency of conventional antibiotics against multidrug resistant bacteria or fungi
Cystic fibrosis, treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
improvement of antibacterial and antifungal therapy, antifungal activity
Khan et al. [42]
Pritchard et al. [43]
Powell et al. [44]
Heparinoid 911 (sulfated
high mannuronic and guluronic oligosaccharides)
Interaction with glycoproteins present on the cell surface, which leads to the counteracting HIV-virus, prevention of viral adsorption and inhibition of viral reverse transcriptase;
inhibition of DNA polymerase of hepatitis B virus
hepatitis B virus
Xin et al. [45]
Xin et al. [46]
Jiang et al. [47]
Wu et al. [48]
ALG oligosaccharides;
Inhibition effect on neuroinflammation, promotion effect on microglial phagocytosis, protection neurons from cell death by blocking oxidative stress, inhibition of production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, promotion of the phagocytosis of amyloid β protein through its interaction with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in microglia
Alzheimer’s disease and neurodegenerative diseasesTusi et al. [49]
Zhou et al. [50]
Manigandan et al. [51]
Hu et al. [52]
Wang et al. [53]
Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate oligosaccharides (PSS)Inhibition of thrombin by interfering with the coagulation cascade, prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time, clotting time and reduction platelet aggregation
Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity, blood viscosity reductionRonghua et al. [54]
Xin et al. [55]
Guluronate oligosaccharideReduction of the production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, reactive oxygen species, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-6, reduction of the inflammatory responses through blocking the activation of nuclear factor NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases, inhibition lipid peroxidation
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity,
protection cells from the carcinogenesis process
Falkeborg et al. [56]
Zhou et al [57]
An et al. [58]
Ji et al. [59]
Hu et al. [60]
Unsaturated guluronate oligosaccharideDose and time depend on induction of production of nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, reactive oxygen species and TNF-α, induction of macrophage to release nuclear factor NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways
Immunomodulatory activity
Xu et al. [61]
Xu et al. [62]
ALG oligosaccharidesStimulation cecal and fecal microflora
Probiotic and prebiotic activityWang et al. [63]
Sodium alginate oligosaccharides
(including unsaturated 3α-L-guluronate
and/or β-D-mannuronate)
Hypothesis mechanism involves blood pressure reduction related to direct action on vascular vessels, by effect on the adrenergic nervous system or endothelial cell functionHypertensionTerakado et al. [64]
Chaki et al. [65]
Moriya et al. [66]