Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2017, Article ID 9721934, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9721934
Research Article

Use of TBzTD as Noncarcinogenic Accelerator for ENR/SiO2 Nanocomposites: Cured Characteristics, Mechanical Properties, Thermal Behaviors, and Oil Resistance

1Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2MTEC, National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Thailand Science Park, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand

Correspondence should be addressed to Anyaporn Boonmahitthisud; ht.ca.aluhc@b.nropayna

Received 6 April 2017; Accepted 7 June 2017; Published 31 July 2017

Academic Editor: Domenico Acierno

Copyright © 2017 Laksamon Raksaksri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. M. Hassan, A. A. Abd El-Megeed, and N. A. Maziad, “Evaluation of curing and physical properties of NR/SBR blends using radiation-grafting copolymer,” Polymer Composites, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 743–750, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Derouet, P. Intharapat, Q. N. Tran, F. Gohier, and C. Nakason, “Graft copolymers of natural rubber and poly(dimethyl(acryloyloxymethyl)phosphonate) (NR-g-PDMAMP) or poly(dimethyl(methacryloyloxyethyl)phosphonate) (NR-g-PDMMEP) from photopolymerization in latex medium,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 820–836, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Y. S. R. Yahya, A. R. Azura, and Z. Ahmad, “Effect of curing systems on thermal degradation behaviour of natural rubber (SMR CV 60),” Journal of Physical Science, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 1–14, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Z. X. Ooi, H. Ismail, and A. A. Bakar, “A comparative study of aging characteristics and thermal stability of oil palm ash, silica, and carbon black filled natural rubber vulcanizates,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 130, no. 6, pp. 4474–4481, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Thongnuanchan, K. Nokkaew, A. Kaesaman, and C. Nakason, “Epoxidized natural rubber-bonded para rubber wood particleboard,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 421–428, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Jai-Eau, E. Wimolmala, and N. Sombatsompop, “Cure behavior and antimicrobial performance of sulfur-cured natural rubber vulcanizates containing 2-hydroxypropyl-3-piperazinylquinolinecarboxylic acid methacrylate or silver-substituted zeolite,” Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 123–131, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Abhitha and K. Thomas, “Safe vulcanization system for heat resistant natural rubber products for engineering applications,” American Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 3, p. 13, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  8. R. Yoksan, “Epoxidized natural rubber for adhesive applications,” Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science), vol. 42, pp. 325–332, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  9. C. M. Vu, H. T. Vu, and H. J. Choi, “Fabrication of natural rubber/epoxidized natural rubber/nanosilica nanocomposites and their physical characteristics,” Macromolecular Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 284–290, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. L. Teh, Z. A. M. Ishak, A. S. Hashim, J. Karger-Kocsis, and U. S. Ishiaku, “Effects of epoxidized natural rubber as a compatibilizer in melt compounded natural rubber-organoclay nanocomposites,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 2513–2521, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. S. M. Bashir, Y. Manusamy, T. L. Chew, H. Ismail, and S. Ramasamy, “Mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of (eggshell powder)-filled natural rubber latex foam,” Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. Tanrattanakul, B. Wattanathai, A. Tiangjunya, and P. Muhamud, “In situ epoxidized natural rubber: improved oil resistance of natural rubber,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 261–269, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Gnecco, A. Pooley, and M. Krause, “Epoxidation of low-molecular-weight Euphorbia lactiflua natural rubber with "in situ" formed performic acid,” Polymer Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 609–615, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. E. Davey and M. J. R. Loadman, “Chemical demonstration of the randomness of epoxidation of natural rubber,” British Polymer Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 134–138, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Z.-Q. Zeng, H.-P. Yu, Q.-F. Wang, and G. Lu, “Effects of coagulation processes on properties of epoxidized natural rubber,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 1944–1949, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. W. A. K. Mahmood and M. H. Azarian, “Thermal, surface, nanomechanical and electrical properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50)/polyaniline composite films,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 599–607, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. V. Bac, L. Terlemezyan, and M. Mihailov, “On the stability and in situ epoxidation of natural rubber in latex by performic acid,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 2965–2973, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Oh, and K. Chung, “Effect of carbon black on self-crosslinking network structure of polychloroprene rubber and epoxidized natural rubber blends,” Polymer Composites, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. K. Chattopadhyay, U. Basuli, and S. Chattopadhyay, “Studies on novel dual filler based epoxidized natural rubber nanocomposite,” Polymer Composites, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 835–846, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Sheth and R. N. Desai, “Replacing TMTD with nitrosamine free TBzTD accelerator in curing of rubber,” International Journal for Scientific Research & Development, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 532–535, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  21. T. E. Motaung, A. S. Luyt, and S. Thomas, “Morphology and properties of NR/EPDM rubber blends filled with small amounts of titania nanoparticles,” Polymer Composites, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1289–1296, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Jarnthong, C. Nakason, N. Lopattananon, and Z. Peng, “Influence of incorporation sequence of silica nanoparticles on morphology, crystallization behavior, mechanical properties, and thermal resistance of melt blended thermoplastic natural rubber,” Polymer Composites, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1911–1920, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. V. A. Doan, S. Nobukawa, S. Ohtsubo, T. Tada, and M. Yamaguchi, “Selective migration of silica particles between rubbers,” Journal of Polymer Research, vol. 20, no. 5, article 145, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. Kaewsakul, K. Sahakaro, W. K. Dierkes, and J. W. M. Noordermeer, “Verification of interactions between silica and epoxidised squalene as a model for epoxidised natural rubber,” Journal of Rubber Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 129–142, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. R. Pourhossaini and M. Razzaghi-Kashani, “Grafting hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene onto nanosilica surface for styrene butadiene rubber compounds,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 4721–4728, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Jon, N. A. Samad, N. A. Abdullah, I. Abdullah, and R. Othaman, “Influence of silica addition on the properties of epoxidised natural rubber/polyvinyl chloride composite membrane,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 2789–2795, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Thitithammawong, N. Ruttanasupa, and C. Nakason, “Preparation and properties of chlorinated epoxidised natural rubber latex and its latex-based adhesive,” Journal of Rubber Research, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 19–34, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S.-H. Chough and D.-H. Chang, “Kinetics of sulfur vulcanization of NR, BR, SBR, and their blends using a rheometer and DSC,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 449–454, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Ismail, R. B. Abdul Majid, and R. Mat Taib, “Effects of dynamic vulcanization on tensile, morphological, and swelling properties of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)/(Kenaf core powder) composites,” Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 206–212, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Saramolee, K. Sahakaro, N. Lopattananon, W. K. Dierkes, and J. W. M. Noordermeer, “Comparative properties of silica- and carbon blackreinforced natural rubber in the presence of epoxidized lowmolecular weight polymer,” Rubber Chemistry and Technology, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 320–339, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Qu, G. Yu, L. Wang, C. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Li, “Effect of filler-elastomer interactions on the mechanical and nonlinear viscoelastic behaviors of chemically modified silica-reinforced solution-polymerized styrene butadiene rubber,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 116–126, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus