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International Journal of Rheumatology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 310206, 7 pages
Review Article

Update: Cytokine Dysregulation in Chronic Nonbacterial Osteomyelitis (CNO)

1Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Fetscherstra╬▓e 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
2Department of Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, 01307 Dresden, Germany
3Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA

Received 14 January 2012; Accepted 22 March 2012

Academic Editor: Lorenzo Beretta

Copyright © 2012 Sigrun R. Hofmann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) with its most severe form chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a non-bacterial osteitis of yet unknown origin. Secondary to the absence of both high-titer autoantibodies and autoreactive T lymphocytes, and the association with other autoimmune diseases, it was recently reclassified as an autoinflammatory disorder of the musculoskeletal system. Since its etiology is largely unknown, the diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, and treatment is empiric and not always successful. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of possible etiopathogenetic mechanisms in CNO.