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International Journal of Rheumatology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 381237, 5 pages
Research Article

Validity and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Persian Version of the Oxford Elbow Score

1Orthopaedic Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 91766-99199, Iran
2Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
3Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 91766-99199, Iran
4Yawkey Center, 55 Fruit Street, Suite 2100, Boston, MA 02114, USA
5Orthopedic Research Center, Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 91379-13316, Iran
6Orthopaedic Research Center, Shahid Kamyab Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 913791-3316, Iran

Received 18 May 2014; Accepted 28 July 2014; Published 26 August 2014

Academic Editor: Ruben Burgos-Vargas

Copyright © 2014 Mohammad H. Ebrahimzadeh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-reported questionnaire used to assess outcomes after elbow surgery. The aim of this study was to validate and adapt the OES into Persian language. After forward-backward translation of the OES into Persian, a total number of 92 patients after elbow surgeries completed the Persian OES along with the Persian DASH and SF-36. To assess test-retest reliability, 31 randomly selected patients (34%) completed the Persian OES again after three days while abstaining from all forms of therapeutic regimens. Reliability of the Persian OES was assessed by measuring intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to test the construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.92 showing excellent reliability. Cronbach’s alpha for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales was 0.95, 0.86, and 0.85, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.85 for the overall questionnaire and 0.90, 0.76, and 0.75 for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales, respectively. Construct validity was confirmed as the Spearman correlation between OES and DASH was 0.80. Persian OES is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure to assess postsurgical elbow status in Persian speaking population.