Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Rheumatology
Volume 2017, Article ID 9614241, 15 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9614241
Review Article

Review of Routine Laboratory Monitoring for Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Biologic or Nonbiologic DMARDs

1Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Lebanon, NH, USA
2Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical, Inc., Novato, CA, USA
3Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA
4Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
5University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
6University of Florence, Florence, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to William F. C. Rigby; ude.htuomtrad@ybgir.mailliw

Received 16 February 2017; Accepted 15 August 2017; Published 31 October 2017

Academic Editor: Ruben Burgos-Vargas

Copyright © 2017 William F. C. Rigby et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. A. Aviña-Zubieta, H. K. Choi, M. Sadatsafavi, M. Etminan, J. M. Esdaile, and D. Lacaille, “Risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of observational studies,” Arthritis Care & Research, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1690–1697, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Michaud and F. Wolfe, “Comorbidities in rheumatoid arthritis,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 885–906, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Ursum, M. M. J. Nielen, J. W. R. Twisk et al., “Increased risk for chronic comorbid disorders in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a population based study,” BMC Family Practice, vol. 14, article no. 199, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Dadoun, N. Zeboulon-Ktorza, C. Combescure et al., “Mortality in rheumatoid arthritis over the last fifty years: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Joint Bone Spine, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. P. Liao, “Cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 136–140, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Choy, K. Ganeshalingam, A. G. Semb, Z. Szekanecz, and M. Nurmohamed, “Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: recent advances in the understanding of the pivotal role of inflammation, risk predictors and the impact of treatment,” Rheumatology, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 2143–2154, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. M. J. Peters, D. P. Symmons, D. McCarey et al., “EULAR evidence-based recommendations for cardiovascular risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory arthritis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 325–331, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  8. I. Ferraz-Amaro, R. Winchester, P. K. Gregersen et al., “Coronary artery calcification and rheumatoid arthritis: lack of relationship to risk alleles for coronary artery disease in the general population,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 529–541, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. F. Doran, C. S. Crowson, G. R. Pond, W. M. O'Fallon, and S. E. Gabriel, “Frequency of infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with controls: a Population-Based Study,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 2287–2293, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Couderc, Z. Tatar, B. Pereira et al., “Prevalence of renal impairment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a cross-sectional multicenter study,” Arthritis Care & Research, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 638–644, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. A. Singh, K. G. Saag, S. L. Bridges Jr. et al., “2015 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis Care & Research, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 1–25, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. S. Smolen, R. Landewe, F. C. Breedveld et al., “EULAR recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis with synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs: 2013 update,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 492–509, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. M. van der Kooij, J. K. de Vries-Bouwstra, Y. P. M. Goekoop-Ruiterman et al., “Limited efficacy of conventional DMARDs after initial methotrexate failure in patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis treated according to the disease activity score,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1356–1362, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. C. Breedveld, M. H. Weisman, A. F. Kavanaugh et al., “The PREMIER study: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial of combination therapy with adalimumab plus methotrexate versus methotrexate alone or adalimumab alone in patients with early, aggressive rheumatoid arthritis who had not had previous methotrexate treatment,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 26–37, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Emery, F. C. Breedveld, S. Hall et al., “Comparison of methotrexate monotherapy with a combination of methotrexate and etanercept in active, early, moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (COMET): a randomised, double-blind, parallel treatment trial,” The Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9636, pp. 375–382, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. G. Saag, G. G. Teng, N. M. Patkar et al., “American College of Rheumatology 2008 recommendations for the use of nonbiologic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 762–784, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  17. J. Ledingham, N. Gullick, K. Irving et al., “BSR and BHPR guideline for the prescription and monitoring of non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs,” Rheumatology, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 865–868, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. K. Chakravarty, H. McDonald, T. Pullar et al., “BSR/BHPR guideline for disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy in consultation with the British Association of Dermatologists.,” Rheumatology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 924-925, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Meune, E. Touzé, L. Trinquart, and Y. Allanore, “Trends in cardiovascular mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis over 50 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.,” Rheumatology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1309–1313, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. Kerekes, M. T. Nurmohamed, M. A. González-Gay et al., “Rheumatoid arthritis and metabolic syndrome,” Nature Reviews Rheumatology, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 691–696, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Choy and N. Sattar, “Interpreting lipid levels in the context of high-grade inflammatory states with a focus on rheumatoid arthritis: a challenge to conventional cardiovascular risk actions,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 460–469, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Karie, F. Gandjbakhch, N. Janus et al., “Kidney disease in RA patients: prevalence and implication on RA-related drugs management: the MATRIX study,” Rheumatology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 350–354, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. E. Bourke, D. F. Woodrow, and J. T. Scott, “Proteinuria in rheumatoid arthritis—drug-induced or amyloid?” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 240–244, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. K. Laiho, S. Tiitinen, K. Kaarela, H. Helin, and H. Isomäki, “Secondary amyloidosis has decreased in patients with inflammatory joint disease in Finland,” Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 122-123, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Niederstadt, T. Happ, E. Tatsis, A. Schnabel, and J. Steinhoff, “Glomerular and tubular proteinuria as markers of nephropathy in rheumatoid arthritis,” Rheumatology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 28–33, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. Lazaro and J. Morel, “Management of neutropenia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Joint Bone Spine, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 235–239, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. C. Genovese, A. Rubbert-Roth, J. S. Smolen et al., “Longterm safety and efficacy of tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A cumulative analysis of up to 4.6 years of exposure,” The Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 768–780, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. N. George and R. H. Aster, “Drug-induced thrombocytopenia: pathogenesis, evaluation, and management,” International Journal of Hematology, vol. 2009, no. 1, pp. 153–158, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. METHOTREXATE Prescribing Information. Columbus, OH: Roxane Laboratories, Inc., 2012.
  30. ARAVA Prescribing Information. Bridgewater, NJ: sanofi-aventis, LLC. 2014.
  31. ACTEMRA Prescribing Information. Genentech, Inc. South San Francisco, CA. 2013.
  32. XELJANZ Prescribing Information. New York, NY: Pfizer Labs., 2015.
  33. RITUXAN Prescribing Information. South San Francisco, CA: Genentech, Inc., 2014.
  34. D. A. Pappas, G. W. Reed, K. Saunders et al., “Characteristics associated with biologic monotherapy use in biologic-naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a US registry population,” Rheumatology and Therapy, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 85–95, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. S. J. Lee, H. Chang, Y. Yazici, J. D. Greenberg, J. M. Kremer, and A. Kavanaugh, “Utilization trends of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors among patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a United States observational cohort study,” The Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1611–1617, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Garcês, J. Demengeot, and E. Benito-Garcia, “The immunogenicity of anti-TNF therapy in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: a systematic review of the literature with a meta-analysis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 72, no. 12, pp. 1947–1955, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. R. Maneiro, E. Salgado, and J. J. Gomez-Reino, “Immunogenicity of monoclonal antibodies against tumor necrosis factor used in chronic immune-mediated inflammatory conditions: systematic review and meta-analysis,” JAMA Internal Medicine, vol. 173, no. 15, pp. 1416–1428, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. S. Thomas, N. Borazan, N. Barroso et al., “Comparative immunogenicity of TNF inhibitors: impact on clinical efficacy and tolerability in the management of autoimmune diseases. A systematic review and meta-analysis,” BioDrugs, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 241–258, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. M. Bartelds, C. L. M. Krieckaert, M. T. Nurmohamed et al., “Development of antidrug antibodies against adalimumab and association with disease activity and treatment failure during longterm follow-up,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 14, pp. 1460–1468, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. B. Krintel, V. P. Grunert, M. L. Hetland et al., “The frequency of anti-infliximab antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated in routine care and the associations with adverse drug reactions and treatment failure,” Rheumatology, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1245–1253, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. Liu, A. Ahmet, L. Ward et al., “A practical guide to the monitoring and management of the complications of systemic corticosteroid therapy,” Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, vol. 9, article 30, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. I. Navarro-Millán, C. Charles-Schoeman, S. Yang et al., “Changes in lipoproteins associated with methotrexate or combination therapy in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis trial,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1430–1438, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Goldbach-Mansky, M. Wilson, R. Fleischmann et al., “Comparison of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F versus sulfasalazine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 229–240, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. J. Morris, M. C. M. Wasko, J. L. Antohe et al., “Hydroxychloroquine use associated with improvement in lipid profiles in rheumatoid arthritis patients,” Arthritis Care & Research, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 530–534, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. Charles-Schoeman, M. A. Gonzalez-Gay, I. Kaplan et al., “Effects of tofacitinib and other DMARDs on lipid profiles in rheumatoid arthritis: implications for the rheumatologist,” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 71–80, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Souto, E. Salgado, J. R. Maneiro, A. Mera, L. Carmona, and J. J. Gõmez-Reino, “Lipid profile changes in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis treated with biologic agents and tofacitinib in randomized clinical trials: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 117–127, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. I. B. McInnes, L. Thompson, J. T. Giles et al., “Effect of interleukin-6 receptor blockade on surrogates of vascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: MEASURE, a randomised, placebo-controlled study,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 694–702, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. M. van Sijl, M. J. L. Peters, D. L. Knol et al., “The effect of TNF-alpha blocking therapy on lipid levels in rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis,” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 393–400, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. Roubille, V. Richer, T. Starnino et al., “The effects of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors, methotrexate, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids on cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 480–489, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. D. Greenberg, J. M. Kremer, J. R. Curtis et al., “Tumour necrosis factor antagonist use and associated risk reduction of cardiovascular events among patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 576–582, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. V. U. Rao, A. Pavlov, M. Klearman et al., “An evaluation of risk factors for major adverse cardiovascular events during tocilizumab therapy,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 372–380, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. Yamamoto, H. Goto, K. Hirao et al., “Longterm safety of tocilizumab: results from 3 years of followup postmarketing surveillance of 5573 patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Japan,” The Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1368–1375, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. K. Choi, M. A. Hernán, J. D. Seeger, J. M. Robins, and F. Wolfe, “Methotrexate and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study,” The Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9313, pp. 1173–1177, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. Y.-B. Park, H. K. Choi, M.-Y. Kim et al., “Effects of antirheumatic therapy on serum lipid levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A prospective study,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 188–193, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Boers, M. T. Nurmohamed, C. J. A. Doelman et al., “Influence of glucocorticoids and disease activity on total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 842–845, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. Emery, F. C. Breedveld, E. M. Lemmel et al., “A comparison of the efficacy and safety of leflunomide and methotrexate for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Rheumatology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 655–665, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. C. Salliot and D. van der Heijde, “Long-term safety of methotrexate monotherapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature research,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 1100–1104, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. Emery, R. M. Fleischmann, L. W. Moreland et al., “Golimumab, a human anti-tumor necrosis factor α monoclonal antibody, injected subcutaneously every four weeks in methotrexate-naive patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: twenty-four-week results of a phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of golimumab before methotrexate as first-line therapy for early-onset rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 2272–2283, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Dougados, K. Kissel, T. Sheeran et al., “Adding tocilizumab or switching to tocilizumab monotherapy in methotrexate inadequate responders: 24-week symptomatic and structural results of a 2-year randomised controlled strategy trial in rheumatoid arthritis (ACT-RAY),” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. G. Jones, A. Sebba, J. Gu et al., “Comparison of tocilizumab monotherapy versus methotrexate monotherapy in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis: the AMBITION study,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 88–96, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. E. Silverman, R. Mouy, L. Spiegel et al., “Leflunomide or methotrexate for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 16, pp. 1655–1666, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. R. F. van Vollenhoven, R. Fleischmann, S. Cohen et al., “Tofacitinib or adalimumab versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 367, no. 6, pp. 508–519, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. Combe, C. Codreanu, U. Fiocco et al., “Efficacy, safety and patient-reported outcomes of combination etanercept and sulfasalazine versus etanercept alone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind randomised 2-year study,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 1146–1152, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. E. Besada, W. Koldingsnes, and J. Nossent, “Characteristics of late onset neutropenia in rheumatologic patients treated with rituximab: a case review analysis from a single center,” QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 545–550, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. Abdulkader, C. Dharmapalaiah, G. Rose, L. M. Shand, G. P. Clunie, and R. A. Watts, “Late-onset neutropenia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with rituximab,” The Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 858–861, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. H. Salmon, P. Cacoub, B. Combe et al., “Late-onset neutropenia after treatment with rituximab for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases: data from the AutoImmunity and Rituximab registry,” RMD Open, vol. 1, article e000034, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. H. Franck, R. Rau, and G. Herborn, “Thrombocytopenia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on long-term treatment with low dose methotrexate,” Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 163–167, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. J. Peters, I. E. van der Horst-Bruinsma, B. A. Dijkmans, and M. T. Nurmohamed, “Cardiovascular risk profile of patients with spondylarthropathies, particularly ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis,” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 585–592, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. Robertson, M. J. Peters, I. B. McInnes, and N. Sattar, “Changes in lipid levels with inflammation and therapy in RA: a maturing paradigm,” Nature Reviews Rheumatology, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 513–523, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. E. Myasoedova, C. S. Crowson, H. M. Kremers et al., “Lipid paradox in rheumatoid arthritis: the impact of serum lipid measures and systemic inflammation on the risk of cardiovascular disease,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 482–487, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. M. Grossman, R. Gordon, V. K. Ranganath et al., “American College of Rheumatology 2010 recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis,” Arthritis Care & Research, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 1515–1526, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. I. Del Rincón, D. F. Battafarano, J. F. Restrepo, J. M. Erikson, and A. Escalante, “Glucocorticoid dose thresholds associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 264–272, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. PLAQUENIL Prescribing Information. Laval, Quebec: sanofi-aventis Canada, Inc., 2014.
  74. AZULFIDINE Prescribing Information. New York, NY: Pharmacia & Upjohn Co., 2014.
  75. ACTEMRA Prescribing Information. South San Francisco, CA: Genentech, Inc., 2013.
  76. ORENCIA Prescribing Information. Princeton, NJ: Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. 2015.
  77. D. Chen, Y. Chen, T. Hsieh, C. Hsieh, C. Lin, and J. Lan, “Significant effects of biologic therapy on lipid profiles and insulin resistance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis Research & Therapy, vol. 17, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. N. A. Rodriguez-Jimenez, C. E. Garcia-Gonzalez, K. P. Ayala-Lopez et al., “Modifications in lipid levels are independent of serum TNF-α in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of an observational 24-week cohort study comparing patients receiving etanercept plus Methotrexate or Methotrexate as Monotherapy,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 510305, 10 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. B. W. Kirkham, M. C. Wasko, E. C. Hsia et al., “Effects of golimumab, an anti-tumour necrosis factor-α human monoclonal antibody, on lipids and markers of inflammation,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 161–169, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. Mathieu, M. Couderc, B. Glace et al., “Effects of 6 months of abatacept treatment on aortic stiffness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Biologics : Targets & Therapy, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 259–264, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. Fleischmann, M. Cutolo, M. C. Genovese et al., “Phase IIb dose-ranging study of the oral JAK inhibitor tofacitinib (CP-690,550) or adalimumab monotherapy versus placebo in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis with an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 617–629, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. N. Van Roon, T. L. T. A. Jansen, N. M. Houtman, P. Spoelstra, and J. R. B. J. Brouwers, “Leflunomide for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice: Incidence and severity of hepatotoxicity,” Drug Safety, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 345–352, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. Londono, A. M. Santos, P. I. Santos, M. F. Cubidez, C. Guzman, and R. Valle-Oñate, “Therapeutic efficacy and safety of methotrexate + leflunomide in Colombian patients with active rheumatoid arthritis refractory to conventional treatment,” Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 837–845, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. P. Pinto and M. Dougados, “Leflunomide in clinical practice,” Acta Reumatologica Portuguesa, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 215–224, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  85. HUMIRA Prescribing Information. North Chicago, IL: AbbVie Inc., 2014.
  86. J. R. Peterson, F. C. Hsu, P. A. Simkin, and M. H. Wener, “Effect of tumour necrosis factor α antagonists on serum transaminases and viraemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic hepatitis C infection,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 1078–1082, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. G. R. Burmester, A. Rubbert-Roth, A. Cantagrel et al., “A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study of the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous tocilizumab versus intravenous tocilizumab in combination with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (SUMMACTA study),” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 69–74, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. M. Dougados, K. Kissel, P. G. Conaghan et al., “Clinical, radiographic and immunogenic effects after 1 year of tocilizumab-based treatment strategies in rheumatoid arthritis: the ACT-RAY study,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 73, no. 5, article 73, pp. 803–809, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. N. Nishimoto, K. Ito, and N. Takagi, “Safety and efficacy profiles of tocilizumab monotherapy in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of six initial trials and five long-term extensions,” Modern Rheumatology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 222–232, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. R. Fleischmann, J. Tesser, M. H. Schiff et al., “Safety of extended treatment with anakinra in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 1006–1012, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. G. R. Burmester, R. Blanco, C. Charles-Schoeman et al., “Tofacitinib (CP-690,550) in combination with methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis with an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: a randomised phase 3 trial,” The Lancet, vol. 381, no. 9865, pp. 451–460, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. Fleischmann, J. Kremer, J. Cush et al., “Placebo-controlled trial of tofacitinib monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 367, no. 6, pp. 495–507, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. N. Ruperto, D. J. Lovell, R. Cuttica et al., “A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of infliximab plus methotrexate for the treatment of polyarticular-course juvenile rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 3096–3106, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. KINERET Prescribing Information. Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB; Stockholm, Sweden, 2013.
  95. A. J. Kinder, A. B. Hassell, J. Brand, A. Brownfield, M. Grove, and M. F. Shadforth, “The treatment of inflammatory arthritis with methotrexate in clinical practice: treatment duration and incidence of adverse drug reactions,” Rheumatology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 61–66, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. K. E. Hansen, J. Cush, A. Singhal et al., “The safety and efficacy of leflunomide in combination with infliximab in rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 228–232, 2004. View at Google Scholar