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International Journal of Rotating Machinery
Volume 2011, Article ID 415296, 10 pages
Research Article

Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

1Research and Technology Directorate, NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135, USA
2NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681, USA

Received 24 December 2010; Accepted 18 March 2011

Academic Editor: Zuohua Huang

Copyright © 2011 Robert C. Hendricks and Dennis Bushnell. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (<10 to 140 nm) contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft) and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked and, when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.