Table 8: Expressions defined in ANSYS Pre for the baseline design [5, 11].

Name ExpressionDescription

Gravity9.82 [ms−2]Acceleration due to gravity
Head13.34 [m]Model head based on scaling
Turbine radius132.5 [mm]Model turbine radius based on scaling
Inlet velocity(2 × gravity × head)0.5 [m/s]Water velocity at the nozzle inlet
OmegaInlet velocity/(2 × turbine radius) [rad/s]Angular velocity: rotation in the negative direction is selected
Torque middle bucket wallTorque_z@Middel Bucket WallThe entire middle bucket is selected
Total timeTotal simulation running time