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International Journal of Reproductive Medicine publishes clinical research and review articles on reproductive medicine.
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Adherence to Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation and Its Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Bwindi Community Hospital, Western Uganda
Aims/Objectives. This study assessed the adherence to iron and folic acid supplementation and the associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Bwindi Community Hospital, in Western Uganda. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study that used an interviewer-administered questionnaire and reviewed medical records. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with iron and folic acid supplementation. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and value < 0.05 were used to assess for statistical significance. Results. We enrolled 438 pregnant women aged 16 to 41years. Participants’ mean age (±standard deviation (SD)) was 25.9 (±3.17) years. The self-reported adherence to iron and folic acid supplementation (consumed ≥4 tablets a week or 20 tablets in a month daily without missing the prescribed dosage) was 22.37% (). Among the adherent pregnant women, the reported reasons (and their respective proportionality) for adherence were getting advice and counseling from the healthcare worker about the good effects of iron and folic acid supplementation (, 34.69%) and knowledge about the health benefits of iron and folic acid supplementation such as preventing anemia (, 16.33%), among others. On the other hand, the reported reasons (and their respective proportionality) for iron and folic acid nonadherence were forgetfulness (, 46.47%), taking too many pills (, 2.06%), not knowing the usefulness of iron and folic acid supplementation (, 8.53%), fear of the side effects of the medication (, 35.00%), and not getting the supplement from the hospital (, 7.94%). Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that pregnant women who were primigravida (), who have parity of 2 or 3 (), who perceived importance of iron and folic acid supplementation to prevent anemia (), and who considered it important to take iron and folic acid supplementation () showed a statistically significant association with adherence to iron and folic acid supplementation. Moreover, pregnant women who perceived the risk of not taking iron and folic acid supplementation (), those who received sufficient health education regarding the goals of iron and folic acid supplementation as well as the dangers of not taking the supplements () and adequate counseling, and those who obtained an explanation of the effects of iron and folic acid () showed a significant association with adherence to iron and folic acid supplementation. Conclusion. This study found a low adherence of iron and folic acid supplementation and was associated with obstetric and client- and health system-related characteristics. To this end, there is a need for individualized strategies targeting such factors and intensifying health education, guidance, and counseling to optimize adherence to iron and folic acid supplementation.
Magnitude of Gender-Based Violence and Its Associated Factors among Female Night Students in Bahir Dar City, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Background. Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major public health issue that affects the health and well-being of millions of young people worldwide each year. Gender-based violence was prevalent throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. However, research in Africa is extremely diverse. Objective. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent and risk factors of gender-based violence among night female students in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 788 elementary and high school night female students in Bahir Dar from October 15 to November 15, 2019. Data was gathered using self-administered questionnaires. A binary and multiple logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with gender-based and sexual violence. An adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95 percent confidence interval (CI) was calculated to determine the level of significance. Results. The overall lifetime prevalence of gender-based violence (sexual, physical, and emotional violence) was 71.1% with a 95% CI of 67.8%-74.1%. The lifetime prevalence of sexual violence, physical violence, and emotional violence was 49.1%, 57.5%, and 41.6%, respectively. Rural childhood residence (AOR: 3.37, 95% CI: (2.17-5.54)), low school performance (AOR: 3.44, 95% CI: (2.13-5.56)), lack of sexual and reproductive health conversation experience (AOR: 3.68, 95% CI: (2.07-6.54)), poor family control (AOR: 5.62, 95% CI: (3.25-9.71)), and being sexually active (AOR: 3.79, 95% CI: (2.35-6.12)) increased significantly the risk of gender-based violence. The risk factors for sexual violence were young people living with both parents (AOR: 0.28, 95% CI: (0.19-0.41)), peer pressure (AOR: 5.73, 95% CI: (4.11-7.98)), and family support (AOR: 0.31, 95% CI: (0.22-0.43)). Conclusion. In the study area, the lifetime prevalence of sexual violence, physical violence, and emotional violence was high. As a result, it is recommended that policymakers, district officials, schools, and other stakeholders pay attention to and act on gender-based values.
Factors Associated with Modern Contraceptive Use among Married Women Attending Comprehensive Health Centers (CHCs) in Kandahar, Afghanistan
Background. Modern contraceptives are highly effective and reliable methods of preventing unintended pregnancies and reducing maternal deaths. Only 22 percent of currently married women use modern methods of contraceptives in Afghanistan. This study assessed the factors associated with modern contraceptive use among married women attending comprehensive health centers (CHCs) in Kandahar Province. Methods. This was an institution-based cross-sectional study that included 325 married women who attended randomly selected comprehensive health clinics in Kandahar between September and October 2019. The total sample size was allocated proportionally to selected health clinics based on the recent 3-month average patients load. We used a consecutive sampling method to select study participants. Data were collected in a structured questionnaire, which included information on respondents’ demographic, socioeconomic, reproductive, and contraceptive experiences. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21.00 statistical software. We used descriptive statistics such as tables and proportions to present data. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine factors associated with modern contraceptive use. Results. Out of 325 married women, 127 used modern contraceptives with a prevalence of 39.1% (–44.6%). The results indicated that the area of residence (, 95% CI 1.43-4.78) and ever use of contraceptives (, 95% CI 6.88-32.34) are associated with modern contraceptive use among married women attending comprehensive health centers in Kandahar. Conclusion. This study found that modern contraceptive use was higher than reported on the national level. The most persistent factors associated with modern contraceptive use in this study were urban residence and ever use of contraceptives. As a policy measure, family planning programs should be prompted to the rural residency in Kandahar Province.
Factors Associated with Unmet Need for Family Planning among Married Reproductive Age Women in Toke Kutaye District, Oromia, Ethiopia
Background. It is estimated that more than 142 million married women in developing countries have an unmet need for family planning. This study is aimed at identifying factors associated with the unmet need of family planning among married women of reproductive age in Toke Kutaye district, Ethiopia in 2019. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Toke Kutaye district from March 1–30, 2019. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 494 reproductive-age women who were married during data collection. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with the unmet need of family planning at 95% CI with a value of ≤ 0.05. Result. The prevalence of unmet need for family planning in the Toke Kutaye district was 23.1% [95% CI (19.2-26.7)], with 15.2% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting. Women’s education [AOR, 3.64, 95% CI: 1.43-9.25], number of living children [AOR, 2.63, 95% CI: 1.37-5.05], husband disapproval of family planning [AOR, 3.68, 95% CI: 2.20-6.16], and discussion with healthcare providers on family planning [AOR, 0.20, 95% CI: 0.13-0.37] were significantly associated with unmet need for family planning. Conclusion. The prevalence of unmet need for family planning was high. Therefore, program managers, partners, and health workers should work to address the gaps in maternal education, the number of living children, partner disapproval of family planning, and discussion on family planning issues through enhancing female education, awareness on family planning, and male involvement in family planning services.
Attitudes and Practices of Healthcare Professionals and Clinical Medical Students on Contraception: A Cross-Sectional Study in Cape Coast, Ghana
Background. Healthcare providers play a major role in the implementation of family planning policies. In Ghana, there has been a conscious effort to improve the knowledge of preservice and practicing health professionals on family planning. However, there have been concerns about the appropriateness of the attitudes and practices of these health cadres and, hence, their propensity to become barriers to the uptake of contraception in the general population. This study is aimed at assessing the attitudes and practices of healthcare workers and clinical-year medical students in contraceptives use, advocacy, and service provision. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among health workers and clinical-year medical students from January 1 to June 30, 2018. Variables assessed included sexual activity status, previous and current contraceptive use, and satisfaction with contraceptive use among others. Data from 400 self-administered, structured questionnaires comprising close- and open-ended questions was entered in SPSS version 22 and analysed using same. The variables assessed were presented as means, frequencies, and percentages. Results. About 58% of the respondents were sexually active. Half of the participants (50.2%) had used a form of contraception before, with condoms and other barrier methods being the most preferred (67.7%). However, only 18% of respondents were on a form of contraceptive at the time of the survey. Four out of five (82.6%) of the users of these contraceptives were satisfied with their past use. A little over half of the participants had discussed contraception with their partners. Over four-fifths of participants thought family planning was beneficial and were willing to encourage others to use a method of family planning. Majority (63.7%) of the participants had had formal training in family planning, but only 72 (18%) were actively involved in the provision of family planning services. Conclusions. Although the attitudes of the health workers and trainees toward family planning were excellent generally, only a few were using a method of contraception at the time of the survey despite the fact that most of them were sexually active. There is a need to intensify communication on behaviour change towards contraception among health professionals and clinical-year medical students in order to strengthen their role as change agents in an effort to improve community uptake.
Adolescents’ Communication on Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters with Their Parents and Associated Factors among Secondary and Preparatory School Students in Ambo Town, Oromia, Ethiopia
Background. Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communication is most likely to promote healthy sexual practices and to reduce risky sexual behavior among adolescents. Communication is the principal means for parents to transmit sexual values and knowledge to their children. Although there are few studies conducted on parent-adolescent communication, there is no study conducted in the town of Ambo. This study was aimed at assessing the level of parent-adolescent communication on SRH issues and its associated factors among school students in Ambo town, Oromia, Ethiopia. Method. An institution-based concurrent mixed-method cross-sectional study was conducted among 591 secondary and preparatory school students in Ambo town from February 24th to March 9th, 2019. A systematic sampling technique was used to select the study subject. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires, and FGD was conducted with parents of students. Data was entered using EpiData version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 23.0 for statistical analysis. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to ascertain the association using a 95% confidence interval (CI) and value (<0.05). Results. The proportion of students who had communication on sexual and reproductive health issues with their parents was 222 (37.6%). Being female (, 95% CI: 1.40-3.07), private school (, 95% CI: 1.17-3.69), a father with secondary education (, 95% CI: 1.05-8.12) and diploma and above (, 95% CI: 1.23-8.71), considering sex education necessary (, 95% CI: 1.22-6.57), got information about SRH issues from school (, 95% CI: 1.06-2.36) and media (, 95% CI: 1.49-3.71), and mother’s openness to communicate about SRH issues (, 95% CI: 1.31-4.05) were found to be significantly associated with parent-adolescent communication on SRH issues. Conclusions. The study showed that parent-adolescent communication on SRH issues is low. Being female, those from a private school, father’s education, perceived importance of sex education, source of information about SRH issues (school and media), and mother’s openness to communicate about SRH issues were identified to be factors associated with the communication. Therefore, the concerned body should consider the identified factors to improve the current level of parent-adolescent communication and adolescent reproductive health.