Community-Based Essential Newborn Care Practices and Associated Factors among Women of Enderta, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2018Read the full article
International Journal of Reproductive Medicine publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of reproductive medicine.
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Postpartum Contraceptive Use and Its Determinants in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Background. Postpartum contraceptive use is defined as the avoidance of short spaced pregnancies and unintended pregnancy through the first 12 months after delivery. In Ethiopia, different studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use and associated factors. The findings of these studies were inconsistent and characterized by great variability. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use and determinants in Ethiopia using the accessible studies. Methods. The articles were identified through electronic search of reputable databases (MEDLINE through PubMed, EMBASE, HINARI, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library) and the hand search of reference listed in previous prevalence studies to retrieve more. 18 articles are included based on a comprehensive list of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two authors independently extracted all necessary data using a standardized data extraction format. STATA 14 statistical software was used to analyze the data. The Cochrane and test were used to assess the heterogeneity between the studies. A random effects model was calculated to estimate the pooled prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use. Moreover, the determinants for family planning use were reviewed. Results. The pooled prevalence of family planning use among mothers during the postpartum period in Ethiopia was 48.11% (95% CI: 36.96, 59.27). Besides, subgroup analysis revealed that the highest family planning use prevalence among postpartum mothers was observed in Addis Ababa, 65.41 (95% CI: 48.71, 82.11). Resumed sexual activity: 7.91 (95% CI: 4.62, 13.55), antenatal care: 4.98 (95% CI: 2.34, 10.21), secondary school and above level of maternal education: 3.53 (95% CI: 1.67, 7.45), postnatal care: 3.16 (95% CI: 1.7, 5.88), menses resumption: 3.12 (95% CI: 1.52, 6.39), and ≥6 months of postpartum period: 2.78 (95% CI: 1.97, 3.93) have shown a positive association with the use of family planning among mothers in the postpartum epoch. Conclusions. In this study, family planning use among mothers of the postpartum period in Ethiopia was significantly low compared to the existing global commendation on postpartum contraceptive use. Resumed sexual activity, antenatal care, secondary and above level of maternal education, postnatal care, menses resumption, and were found to be significantly associated with postpartum contraceptive use.
Birth Intervals and Associated Factors among Women Attending Young Child Clinic in Yumbe Hospital, Uganda
Introduction. Evidence suggests that both short and long birth intervals are associated with poor maternal and child health outcomes. However, current studies suggest that a number of births still occur at short intervals. The aim of this study was to document birth intervals and associated factors among women of reproductive age in rural Uganda. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 296 women aged 15-49 years attending young child clinic at Yumbe Hospital who had at least two successive live births. Data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Birth interval was categorized according to the WHO-recommended birth interval of ≥24 months and <24 months. Results. Of the 296 participants, 86.6% desired a birth months with a desired median birth interval of 36 months. The actual median birth interval was 22 months. Slightly more than half of the women (52.4%) had short birth intervals. Factors which were likely to be associated with short birth intervals included being younger (15-24 years) (, , ), not planning to have another pregnancy (, , ), not deciding together with husband when to have the next child (, , ), not always using contraceptives before the next pregnancy (, , ), and lack of influence of husband on when to have the next child (, , ). Conclusion. Prevalence of short birth intervals is still high in rural Uganda (52.4%), although majority (86.6%) of the women desire optimal birth intervals. Factors which were likely to be associated with short birth intervals included young maternal age, not using contraceptives, and lack of male involvement in child spacing activities. Therefore, to optimize birth intervals, focused child spacing strategies targeting young women and men are needed.
Association between Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sources of the Previous Point of Care among Nigerians: Findings from Three National HIV and AIDS Reproductive Health Surveys
Background. Adequate knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is critical for effective control of disease. Health education/counselling at the point of care provides ample opportunities to improve knowledge of patient seeking treatment. There is no study from Nigeria that investigates association between sources of previous point of care of STI and quality of knowledge of people on STI. We hypothesised that previous treatment of STI will be associated with better knowledge of STI and HIV infection. Methods. Three consecutives nationally representative cross-sectional surveys on HIV and AIDS Reproductive Health in Nigeria, conducted in 2005, 2007, and 2012 were analysed. Outcome measures were knowledge of STI only, and a combined knowledge of STI and HIV transmission and prevention. We designed a knowledge scale of 14-item questions for STI and 41-item questions for STI and HIV. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors at 5% significance level. Results. Knowledge of STI increased from 13.4% in 2005 to 15.0% in 2007 to 26.5% in 2012. Respondents that received treatment from pharmacy and patient medicine vendors had higher odds of good knowledge of STI than those who did not receive any treatment (aOR = 2.55) in 2005. In 2012, respondents treated at health facilities were over two times likely to have good knowledge of STI and HIV transmission and prevention (aOR = 2.35). STI positive individuals in the highest economic class were two times likely to have good knowledge of STI and HIV transmission and prevention than those in the lowest class. Conclusion. Participants that previously sought care from health facilities, pharmacy, and patient medicine vendors had better knowledge of STIs and HIV infection prevention and transmission than those who sought care from unorthodox sources. We recommend a national awareness creation on STI prevention including provision of information on safe point of care for STIs in Nigeria.
Physical Violence and Associated Factors among Housemaids Living in Debre-Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia: Does Employer Alcohol Intake Increase Housemaid Violence?
Background. Violence against women and girls continues to be a global epidemic, including Ethiopia. Housemaids are a neglected segment of the population, and there are no sufficient findings in our country. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of physical violence and associated factors among housemaids aged 15 years and above living in Debre Tabor town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debre Tabor town, northwest Ethiopia from April 1 to 30, 2018. A total of 634 housemaids were selected using cluster sampling method. Data were entered into Epi info version 22.214.171.124 and analyzed with SPSS version 20 using descriptive and analytic statistics. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify independent significant factors. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to report the strength of associations. Results. From 634 housemaids that participated in the study, 235 (37.1%, 95% CI: 33.1−41.0) of them experienced at least one type of physical violence in their lifetime. Housemaids who previously lived in rural areas (, 95% CI: 1.61, 4.94), had high working experience (, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.71), not having parents (, 95% CI: 1.18, 3.46), being divorced (, 95% CI: 1.31, 4.20), employer alcohol consumption (, 95% CI: 2.81, 8.79), and presence of extended family with employers (, 95% CI: 1.42, 3.59) were independently associated with the probability of housemaid physical violence. Conclusion. High prevalence of housemaid physical violence has been reported. Socio-demographic characteristics of both employers and employees and the behavioral characteristics of employers contributed to physical violence. It is important to give special attention to housemaids who came from rural areas and do not have parents. It is also important to make work experience of housemaids as short as possible.
Correlation of Ultrasonographic Estimation of Fetal Weight with Actual Birth Weight as Seen in a Private Specialist Hospital in South East Nigeria
Background. Ultrasound estimation of fetal weight at term provides vital information for the skilled birth attendants to make decisions on the possible best route of delivery of the fetus. This is more pertinent in a setting where women book late for antenatal care. Aim and Objectives. The study evaluated the accuracy of estimation of fetal weight with ultrasound machine at term. Methods. This was a cross sectional study conducted at a private specialist hospital in Nigeria. A coded questionnaire was used to retrieve relevant information which included the last menstrual period, gestational age, parity, and birth weight. Other information obtained includes Ultrasound-delivery interval, maternal weight, and route of delivery. The ultrasound was used to estimate the fetal weight. The actual birth weight was determined using a digital baby weighing scale. The data were inputted into Microsoft excel and analyzed using STATA version 14. Statistical significance was considered at -values less than 0.05. Measures of accuracy evaluated in the statistical analysis included mean error, mean absolute error, mean percentage error, and mean absolute percentage error. Pearson correlation was done between the estimated ultrasound fetal weight and the actual birth weight. The proportion of estimates within ±10% of actual birth weight was also determined. Result.A total of 170 pregnant women participated in the study. The mean maternal age was 30.77 years ± 5.54. The mean birth weight was 3.47 kg ± 0.47, while the mean estimated ultrasound weight was 3.43 kg ± 0.8. There was positive correlation between the ultrasound estimated weight and the actual birth weight. The mean ultrasound scan to delivery interval was 0.8 days (with range of 0–2 days). The study recorded a mean error of estimation of 41.17 grams and mean absolute error of 258.22 grams. The mean percentage error was 0.65%, while the mean absolute error of estimation was 7.56%. About 72.54% of the estimated weights were within 10% of the actual birth weight. Conclusion. The ultrasound estimated fetal weight correlated with the actual birth weight. Ultrasound estimation of fetal weight should be done when indicated to aid the clinician in making decisions concerning routes of delivery.
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Sunlight Exposure of Infants among Mothers Attending in Governmental Health Facilities in Farta District, South Gondar Zone, North West Ethiopia, 2018
Background. Sunlight exposure serves an important purpose in human bodies. It promotes good health and plays a major role in the production of the very essential vitamin, vitamin D. Vitamin D is important for the growth of healthy, normal bones. Research conducted in different areas suggested that daily exposure to sunshine remains the cheapest, safest, and most effective method of preventing rickets. Objective. To assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of infants to sunlight exposure among lactating women in Farta district, in 2018. Method. Institution based cross sectional study design was conducted among mothers attending the selected health center. Systematic sampling method was used to select individual respondents. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. Among 357 respondents identified for the study, 95% () was responding to the interview. Of the total respondents, 49.9%, 46%, and 45.7% of them had poor knowledge, unfavorable attitude, and poor practice about sunlight exposure, respectively. Conclusion and recommendation. The results of this study showed that almost half of the mothers had inadequate knowledge, attitude, and inadequate practice about sunlight exposure. Therefore, mothers need to be educated about the importance of sunlight exposure.