The Role of FSHR SNPs and AMH in Follicular Fluid and Serum in Ovarian Response during COS: A Pilot StudyRead the full article
International Journal of Reproductive Medicine publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of reproductive medicine.
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Gonadotropin Stimulation Has Only a Limited Effect on the Concentration of Follicular Fluid Signalling Proteins: An Antibody Array Analysis
Objective. The follicular fluid (FF) plays an essential role in the physiology of the follicle and the oocyte. Gonadotropin stimulation affects the FF steroid hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations, which has been suggested to be the reason for lower oocyte competence in conventional gonadotropin stimulated in vitro fertilisation (cIVF) compared to natural cycle IVF (NC-IVF). To analyse the effect of gonadotropin stimulation on a broad spectrum of signalling proteins, we ran proteomic antibody arrays on FF of women undergoing both treatments NC-IVF and cIVF. Method. Twenty women underwent one NC-IVF and one cIVF treatment cycle. Follicular fluids of the first aspirated follicle were compared between the two groups using a protein microarray which included antibodies against 224 proteins related to cell signalling and reference proteins. Each of the 40 albumin-stripped, matched-pair samples was labelled in the reverse-dye (Cy3/Cy5) procedure before undergoing array hybridisation. Signal analysis was performed using normalisation algorithms in dedicated software. Five proteins yielding a value of in the array experiment (Cystatin A, Caspase-3, GAD65/67, ERK-1, and ERK-2) were then submitted to quantitative determination by ELISA in the same follicular fluids. Results. Array analysis yielded only a small number of differentially expressed signalling markers by unadjusted values. Adjustment as a consequence of multiple determinations resulted in the absence of any significant differential marker expression on the array. Five unadjusted differentially expressed proteins were quantified immunometrically with antibodies from different sources. Follicular fluid concentrations of Cystatin A and MAP kinase ERK-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the cIVF than in the NC-IVF follicles, while GAD-2 (GAD65/67) did not differ. The assays for Caspase-3 and MAP kinase ERK-2 did not have the required sensitivities. Conclusion. In contrast to FF steroid hormones and AMH, FF concentrations of signalling proteins are not or only marginally altered by gonadotropin stimulation.
Determinants of Home Delivery among Mothers in Abobo District, Gambella Region, Ethiopia: A Case Control Study
Introduction. Home delivery is one of the major reasons for high maternal mortality ratio in sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia together contribute over 85% of maternal deaths, of which, only half of deliveries are institutional. However, data are scarce on the availability of information with regard to the determinant factors for this high prevalence of home delivery in the study area. Objective. This study is aimed at determining factors associated with home delivery, among mothers in Abobo Woreda, Gambella region, Southwest Ethiopia, 2019. Methods. A case control study conducted from 12 March 2019 up to 2 April 2019 on 88 cases and 176 controls. Cases include mothers who gave birth at home and those mothers who gave birth at health facility in the last one year preceding the study included as controls. Data entry was made using Epi-Data version 3.1, and analysis was made using SPSS version 20. A binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess candidate variables and subsequently a multivariable regression to determine the statistical associations. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to determine strength of association, and value <0.05 was used to establish significant associations. Results. No formal education (AOR: 5.07; 95% CI: 2.18-11.50), poor knowledge on obstetric complications (AOR: 3.83; 95% CI: 1.98-7.40), negative attitude towards delivery service (AOR: 3.25; 95% CI: 1.70-6.19), poor household wealth index (AOR: 4.55; 95% CI: 2.01-10.31), and no antenatal care visit (AOR: 3.29; 95% CI: 1.63-6.63) were found to be significantly associated with home delivery. Conclusions. The findings do support that no formal education, poor knowledge on obstetric complications, negative attitude towards delivery service, poor household wealth index, and no antenatal care visit showed a significant association with home delivery.
Modern Contraceptive Utilization and Determinant Factors among Street Reproductive-Aged Women in Amhara Regional State Zonal Towns, North West Ethiopia, 2019: Community-Based Study
Objective. Reproductive-aged women living on the street, with no doubt, are with lesser benefits of exercising their reproductive rights. Pregnancies from this marginalized population are likely to be unplanned, unwanted, and unsupported. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess modern contraception utilization and associated factors among street reproductive-aged women in Amhara regional state zonal towns. Method. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among street reproductive-aged women in Amhara regional state zonal towns. A single population proportion formula was used to calculate the sample size, a similar literature-based tool adaptation was done, and a semistructured, pretested sectioned questionnaire was used. Cluster sampling technique was used to reach the study participants. Data was entered into Epi Info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 23 for analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to control the possible effect of confounders, and finally, the independent variables were identified on the basis of OR, with 95% CI and values less than 0.05. Results. 604 street reproductive-aged women were interviewed in the study which make the response rate 94.2%. The study revealed that current modern contraceptive utilization among the study participants was found to be 38.9%. Having history of pregnancy in street life (, 1.1-2.7), having three or more live children (, 2.0-20.4), undesiring to have additional children in the future (, 1.4-5.1), mentioning three to four (, 1.5-3.3) and five or more modern contraceptive types (, 1.4-21.0), and discussion with sexual partners for contraceptive use (, 4.3-10.1) were variables significantly associated with modern contraceptive utilization. Modern contraceptive utilization among the street reproductive-aged women was low. Authors suggest that awareness creation and male partner involvement in the maternal services may be important to increase contraceptive utilization.
Influence of Lifestyle and Environmental Factors on Semen Quality in Ghanaian Men
Introduction. Male infertility is known to contribute about half of all infertility cases. In Ghana, the prevalence of male infertility is higher (15.8%) than in females (11.8%). Sperm quality is associated with the likelihood of pregnancy and known to be the cause of male fertility problems 90% of the time. Exposure to certain environmental factors reduces semen quality in men. The study examined the effects of environmental and lifestyle factors on semen quality in Ghanaian men. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study involving 80 apparent healthy adult males in their reproductive age. Participants were males referred to the laboratory (Immunology Unit of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital) for semen analysis test and/or culture and sensitivity. Participants were made to fill out a questionnaire which entailed selected environmental factors (accidents or trauma, exposure to chemicals, radiation, and heat) and lifestyle habits (including alcohol consumption, smoking, and whether participants sat more or less than 4 hours per day). Semen samples were then collected by masturbation into sterile containers and analysed in accordance with WHO guidance for semen analysis within 60 minutes after ejaculation and collection. Results. About 69% of participants had semen pH within the normal range compared to 15% whose pH were lower than 7.2. There was a significantly high number of immotile sperm cells ( value = 0.017) in participants who sat for more than 4 hours as compared to those that sat for less than 4 hours in a day. Active sperm motility and viability showed significant increase ( value = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively) in participants who kept their cell phones in their side pockets. Smoking produced a twofold decrease in sperm count as smokers had a significantly lower sperm count (/ml) compared to the smoke-free (/ml). For exposure to STDs, no significant differences were recorded among study groups concerning semen quality. Conclusion. Sperm quality in Ghanaian men is associated with lifestyle habits. Smoking and sitting for long hours influenced sperm motility and count, respectively. Knowledge of the factors that influence sperm quality in this geographical region can contribute to informed decisions on effective management of infertility in Ghanaian men.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Self-Medication among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care Follow-Up at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Self-medication is being prevalent throughout the globe. Although pregnant women are among the most vulnerable group of the population for drug-induced adverse effects on their fetus and themselves, many pregnant women use self-medication without adequate safety precautions. Objective. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of self-medication among pregnant women on antenatal care follow-up at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Methods. A cross-sectional study was employed among 400 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital between February 01 and May 30, 2019. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS® (IBM Corporation) version 22. Descriptive statistics were presented using frequency and proportion. Binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with self-medication with a 95% confidence level and value of 0.05. Results. Among 400 respondents, the prevalence of self-medication during the current pregnancy was 44.8% (95% -50). Among all respondents (400), 38.0% (95% -42.8) and 12.5% (95% -15) used herbal and conventional medicine, respectively. Self-medication showed a significant association with a previous history of self-medication and monthly income. Conclusions. The prevalence of self-medication among pregnant women is considerably high. The previous history of self-medication and monthly income showed a significant association with self-medication. Awareness creation should be done for reproductive-age women on the potential risks of self-medication.
Using Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Care Utilization to Assess Contraceptive Use among Sexually Active Perinatally HIV-Infected Adolescents in Uganda
Background. Contraceptive practices of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIAs) have implications related to pregnancy prevention, risks of HIV heterosexual transmission, reinfection, and vertical transmission. The study assessed contraceptive use among sexually active PHIAs in Uganda. Methods. Mixed methods consisting of a survey and in-depth interviews were employed among 213 sexually active PHIAs who were attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics. The study was guided by Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Service Use as a theoretical framework to identify factors that influence contraceptive use. These factors include health care factors, personal characteristics, enabling factors, and needs. The outcome was contraceptive use. Multivariable logistic regression was used to establish determinants of contraceptive use. Qualitative data were analyzed by thematic analysis. Results. Most PHIAs were female (67.6%); the mean (SD) and median (IQR) age was 17.5 (±1.4) and 18 (17-19) years. The mean age of sexual debut and at marriage were 15 (±1.7) and 17 (±1.1), respectively. Condoms were the most known method of family planning (indicated by 55.4%). Only 16.9% of the participants knew about dual protection (condom use for FP as well as HIV/STI prevention). Of the PHIAs, 43.6% had ever used modern contraception and 56.9% of the females had ever been pregnant. The odds of contraceptive ever-use were significantly higher among adolescents aged 17-19 years (OR 5.1, 95% CI: 2.1-13.3) compared to those aged 10-16 years, those in school (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.07-3.2) compared to those out of school, and those with perceived need to use FP (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9) compared to their counterparts. The odds of contraceptive used were lower among females (OR 0.13, 95% CI: 0.06-0.28) compared to males. From the in-depth interviews, the attitude of health workers, availability of health workers, having a friend using family planning, and waiting time were viewed to affect contraceptive use. Conclusion. Contraceptive use among sexually active perinatally HIV-infected adolescents was (43.6%). However, out of those who used family planning majority were using short-term methods. The unmet need for family planning was high (47%) with high reports of pregnancy (56.9%). The factors associated with contraceptive use included education, age, sex (predisposing factors), and perceived need of family planning (need factors). Other factors that could affect contraceptive use from qualitative analysis included attitude of health workers, availability of health workers, having a friend using family planning (predisposing factors), and waiting time (health system factors). HIV care for adolescents should be promoted using SRH approach. There is a need to provide training for all providers to cater for SRH services. We should continue to provide youth-responsive adolescent sexual and reproductive health services across all ART facilities and build a supportive environment and continue to integrate SRH services into HIV care.