Gender-Informed Family Planning Perceptions and Decision-Making in Rural Chiapas, Mexico: A Mixed-Methods StudyRead the full article
International Journal of Reproductive Medicine publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of reproductive medicine.
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Assessment of Family Planning Counseling Provided for Postpartum Women and Associated Factors
Background. Good quality family planning counseling particularly in the postpartum period is paramount to contraception adoption and continuation; it is also paramount in the reduction of maternal as well as infant morbidity and mortality. Objective. Assess the level of family planning counseling provided for women in their immediate postpartum period in the labor ward at Saint Paul’s Hospital in 2019. Method. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March of 2019 among women in the labor ward. A face-to-face exit interview was conducted with 209 randomly selected women. A structured pretested questionnaire was used to assess the level of family planning counseling provided. Bivariate logistic regression was used to test for statistical association. Results. Only 28.2% of the counseling sessions were adequate. Most (58.9%) of the counseling sessions did not maintain the privacy of the client. In 67.9% of the sessions, the counselor did not ask the concern of the client regarding the use of modern family planning methods and 74.2% of the clients were not told about the possible side effects of a method. Clients with no formal education (, ) and those with only primary level education (, ) were more likely to have had inadequate counseling. Conclusion. The level of family planning counseling was inadequate. The study indicated the need to provide training for service providers on family planning counseling with the existing standard frameworks but also in consideration of the sociodemographic background of the client, particularly their educational status.
Comparison of Serum Inhibin B and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Level between Normal and Infertile Men in Yaoundé
Objective. Hormones play a vital role in initiating and maintaining male reproductive function. The present study explores the influence and predictive ability of two reproductive hormones on semen quality among men who were partners in an infertile couple. Design. During our cross sectional study, men were recruited from private and public hospital and laboratories for clinical evaluation of fertility status. Methods. Fresh semen samples were assessed for quality (concentration, motility and morphology) according to the 2010 World Health Organization manual and the serum levels of hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Inhibin B was measured (ELISA). Results. We found a significant difference in the two groups regarding sperm concentration (), total sperm count (), progressive motility (), vitality () and the percentage of normal forms (). We found a strong and negative correlation between FSH and Inhibin B in the overall population, the normozoospermic reference group and the case group. Our study confirmed that Inhibin B was significantly and positively correlated with sperm concentration and leucocytes, and that FSH was negatively correlated to sperm concentration and vitality. Conclusion. Consistent with other studies, our results show strong association between semen quality and FSH and Inhibin B.
Community-Based Essential Newborn Care Practices and Associated Factors among Women of Enderta, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2018
Introduction. Neonatal mortality contributes a higher percentage of infant mortality, especially in developing countries including Ethiopia where the rate of institutional delivery is low. In Ethiopia, scientific evidences on the level of community-based essential newborn care practice were scanty and inconclusive. Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess community-based essential newborn care practices and associated factors among women who have months. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was employed among 634 randomly selected women who have months from June 23, 2017, to August 29, 2017, at Enderta district. Data was collected by a face-to-face interview through structured questionnaires, and it was coded, entered, and cleaned using EpiData version 3.1. Then, the data was exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Odds ratios and value were computed to know the association between the independent variables with the dependent variable. Finally, a variable at values of was considered statistically significant with the outcome variable. Result. The overall community-based essential newborn care practice was found 40.7%. Educational status (, 95% CI, 2.49-11.97), previous ANC follow-up (, 95% CI, 1.2-3.80), weight of the child during birth (, 95% CI, 1.12-2.98), and place of delivery (, 95% CI, 1.50-4.63) were found to be significantly associated with community-based essential newborn care. Even though overall newborn practice was found to be good, the cord care practices were found to be poor that indicated there is a need to rise community awareness.
Postpartum Contraceptive Use and Its Determinants in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Background. Postpartum contraceptive use is defined as the avoidance of short spaced pregnancies and unintended pregnancy through the first 12 months after delivery. In Ethiopia, different studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use and associated factors. The findings of these studies were inconsistent and characterized by great variability. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use and determinants in Ethiopia using the accessible studies. Methods. The articles were identified through electronic search of reputable databases (MEDLINE through PubMed, EMBASE, HINARI, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library) and the hand search of reference listed in previous prevalence studies to retrieve more. 18 articles are included based on a comprehensive list of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two authors independently extracted all necessary data using a standardized data extraction format. STATA 14 statistical software was used to analyze the data. The Cochrane and test were used to assess the heterogeneity between the studies. A random effects model was calculated to estimate the pooled prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use. Moreover, the determinants for family planning use were reviewed. Results. The pooled prevalence of family planning use among mothers during the postpartum period in Ethiopia was 48.11% (95% CI: 36.96, 59.27). Besides, subgroup analysis revealed that the highest family planning use prevalence among postpartum mothers was observed in Addis Ababa, 65.41 (95% CI: 48.71, 82.11). Resumed sexual activity: 7.91 (95% CI: 4.62, 13.55), antenatal care: 4.98 (95% CI: 2.34, 10.21), secondary school and above level of maternal education: 3.53 (95% CI: 1.67, 7.45), postnatal care: 3.16 (95% CI: 1.7, 5.88), menses resumption: 3.12 (95% CI: 1.52, 6.39), and ≥6 months of postpartum period: 2.78 (95% CI: 1.97, 3.93) have shown a positive association with the use of family planning among mothers in the postpartum epoch. Conclusions. In this study, family planning use among mothers of the postpartum period in Ethiopia was significantly low compared to the existing global commendation on postpartum contraceptive use. Resumed sexual activity, antenatal care, secondary and above level of maternal education, postnatal care, menses resumption, and were found to be significantly associated with postpartum contraceptive use.
Birth Intervals and Associated Factors among Women Attending Young Child Clinic in Yumbe Hospital, Uganda
Introduction. Evidence suggests that both short and long birth intervals are associated with poor maternal and child health outcomes. However, current studies suggest that a number of births still occur at short intervals. The aim of this study was to document birth intervals and associated factors among women of reproductive age in rural Uganda. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 296 women aged 15-49 years attending young child clinic at Yumbe Hospital who had at least two successive live births. Data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Birth interval was categorized according to the WHO-recommended birth interval of ≥24 months and <24 months. Results. Of the 296 participants, 86.6% desired a birth months with a desired median birth interval of 36 months. The actual median birth interval was 22 months. Slightly more than half of the women (52.4%) had short birth intervals. Factors which were likely to be associated with short birth intervals included being younger (15-24 years) (, , ), not planning to have another pregnancy (, , ), not deciding together with husband when to have the next child (, , ), not always using contraceptives before the next pregnancy (, , ), and lack of influence of husband on when to have the next child (, , ). Conclusion. Prevalence of short birth intervals is still high in rural Uganda (52.4%), although majority (86.6%) of the women desire optimal birth intervals. Factors which were likely to be associated with short birth intervals included young maternal age, not using contraceptives, and lack of male involvement in child spacing activities. Therefore, to optimize birth intervals, focused child spacing strategies targeting young women and men are needed.
Association between Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sources of the Previous Point of Care among Nigerians: Findings from Three National HIV and AIDS Reproductive Health Surveys
Background. Adequate knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is critical for effective control of disease. Health education/counselling at the point of care provides ample opportunities to improve knowledge of patient seeking treatment. There is no study from Nigeria that investigates association between sources of previous point of care of STI and quality of knowledge of people on STI. We hypothesised that previous treatment of STI will be associated with better knowledge of STI and HIV infection. Methods. Three consecutives nationally representative cross-sectional surveys on HIV and AIDS Reproductive Health in Nigeria, conducted in 2005, 2007, and 2012 were analysed. Outcome measures were knowledge of STI only, and a combined knowledge of STI and HIV transmission and prevention. We designed a knowledge scale of 14-item questions for STI and 41-item questions for STI and HIV. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors at 5% significance level. Results. Knowledge of STI increased from 13.4% in 2005 to 15.0% in 2007 to 26.5% in 2012. Respondents that received treatment from pharmacy and patient medicine vendors had higher odds of good knowledge of STI than those who did not receive any treatment (aOR = 2.55) in 2005. In 2012, respondents treated at health facilities were over two times likely to have good knowledge of STI and HIV transmission and prevention (aOR = 2.35). STI positive individuals in the highest economic class were two times likely to have good knowledge of STI and HIV transmission and prevention than those in the lowest class. Conclusion. Participants that previously sought care from health facilities, pharmacy, and patient medicine vendors had better knowledge of STIs and HIV infection prevention and transmission than those who sought care from unorthodox sources. We recommend a national awareness creation on STI prevention including provision of information on safe point of care for STIs in Nigeria.