Table of Contents
International Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2012, Article ID 197609, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/197609
Review Article

Raman Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Point Defects and Defect Clusters in Irradiated Graphite

Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Hyogo 673-1494, Kato, Japan

Received 16 July 2011; Accepted 11 October 2011

Academic Editor: Maher S. Amer

Copyright © 2012 Keisuke Niwase. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Arnold, Windscale, 1957: Anatomy of a Nuclear Accident, Palgrave Macmillan, London, UK, 1995.
  2. W. N. Reynolds, Radiation Damage in Graphite, Pergamon, New York, NY, USA, 1965.
  3. P. A. Thrower, Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, vol. 5 of edited by P. L. Walker, Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1969.
  4. P. A. Thrower and R. M. Mayer, “Point defects and self-diffusion in graphite,” Physica Status Solidi A, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 11–37, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. T. Kelly, Physics of Graphite, Applied Science, London, UK, 1981.
  6. B. S. Elman, M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, E. W. Maby, and H. Mazurek, “Raman scattering from ion-implanted graphite,” Physical Review B, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 1027–1034, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Iwata, “Fine structure of Wigner energy release spectrum in neutron irradiated graphite,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 133-134, pp. 361–364, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. Niwase, M. Sugimoto, T. Tanabe, and F. E. Fujita, “Electron microscope study of radiation damage in graphite produced by D+ and He+ bombardment,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 155–157, no. 1, pp. 303–306, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Niwase, K. Nakamura, I. Tanaka, Y. Miyamoto, and T. Tanabe, “Laser Raman microprobe analysis of the modified surface of He+-irradiated graphite,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 179–181, no. 1, pp. 214–217, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Niwase, T. Tanabe, and I. Tanaka, “Annealing experiment of ion-irradiated graphite by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 191–194, pp. 335–339, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Nakai, C. Kinoshita, and A. Matsunaga, “A study of amorphization and microstructural evolution of graphite under electron or ion irradiation,” Ultramicroscopy, vol. 39, no. 1–4, pp. 361–368, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. Tanabe, S. Muto, and K. Niwase, “On the mechanism of dimensional change of neutron irradiated graphite,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 61, no. 14, pp. 1638–1640, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Nakamura and M. Kitajima, “Ion-irradiation effects on the phonon correlation length of graphite studied by Raman spectroscopy,” Physical Review B, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 78–82, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. M. S. Dresselhaus and R. Kalish, Ion Implantation in Diamond, Graphite and Related Materials, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1992.
  15. K. Niwase and T. Tanabe, “Defect structure and amorphization of graphite irradiated by D+ and He+,” Materials Transactions, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1111–1121, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. T. Kelly, Materials Science and Technology, vol. 10, VCH, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  17. J. Koike and D. F. Pedraza, “Dimensional changes in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite due to electron-irradiation,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1899–1907, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Niwase, “Irradiation-induced amorphization of graphite,” Physical Review B, vol. 52, no. 22, pp. 15785–15798, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Niwase, “Erratum: irradiation-induced amorphization of graphite,” Physical Review B, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 5685–5685, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. T. Tanabe, T. Maruyama, M. Iseki, K. Niwase, and H. Atsumi, “Radiation damage of graphite: degradation of material parameters and defect structures,” Fusion Engineering and Design, vol. 29, pp. 428–434, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Tanabe, “Radiation damage of graphite—degradation of material parameters and defect structures,” Physica Scripta T, vol. 64, pp. 7–16, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  22. H. Abe, H. Naramoto, A. Iwase, and C. Kinoshita, “Effect of damage cascades on the irradiation-induced amorphization in graphite,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B, vol. 127-128, pp. 681–684, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Muto and T. Tanabe, “Damage process in electron-irradiated graphite studied by transmission electron microscopy. I. High-resolution observation of highly graphitized carbon fibre,” Philosophical Magazine A, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 679–690, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Muto, S. Horiuchi, and T. Tanabe, “Local structural order in electron-irradiated graphite studied by high-resolution high-voltage electron microscopy,” Journal of Electron Microscopy, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 767–776, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Meguro, A. Hida, M. Suzuki et al., “Nanoscale modification of electronic states of graphite by highly charged Ar-ion irradiation,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 2745–2748, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. Niwase, “Irradiation-induced amorphization of graphite: a dislocation accumulation model,” Philosophical Magazine Letters, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 401–408, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. H. Telling, C. P. Ewels, A. A. El-Barbary, and M. I. Heggie, “Wigner defects bridge the graphite gap,” Nature Materials, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 333–337, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Hashimoto, K. Suenaga, A. Gloter, K. Urita, and S. Iijima, “Direct evidence for atomic defects in graphene layers,” Nature, vol. 430, no. 7002, pp. 870–873, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Niwase, “Formation of dislocation dipoles in irradiated graphite,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 400-401, no. 1-2, pp. 101–104, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Asthana, Y. Matsui, M. Yasuda, K. Kimoto, T. Iwata, and K. I. Ohshima, “Investigations on the structural disordering of neutron-irradiated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 361–367, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Hirai, J. Compan, K. Niwase, and J. Linke, “Laser Raman microprobe analysis of graphite exposed to edge plasma in the TEXTOR tokamak,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 373, no. 1–3, pp. 119–122, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Hirai, J. Compan, and K. Niwase, “Micro-Raman study on structure evolution of graphite exposed to intense thermal shock load,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 59, pp. 66–70, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Karthik, J. Kane, D. P. Butt, W. E. Windes, and R. Ubic, “In situ transmission electron microscopy of electron-beam induced damage process in nuclear grade graphite,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 412, no. 3, pp. 321–326, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. F. Tuinstra and J. L. Koenig, “Raman spectroscopy of graphite,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 1126–1130, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Niwase, K. G. Nakamura, M. Yokoo, K. I. Kondo, and T. Iwata, “Pathway for the transformation from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite into amorphous diamond,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 102, no. 11, Article ID 116803, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. Ugarte, “Formation mechanism of quasi-spherical carbon particles induced by electron bombardment,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 207, no. 4–6, pp. 473–479, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus