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International Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 985131, 5 pages
Research Article

Spectrophotometric Quantification of Toxicologically Relevant Concentrations of Chromium(VI) in Cosmetic Pigments and Eyeshadow Using Synthetic Lachrymal Fluid Extraction

Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Straße 3, 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany

Received 27 July 2011; Revised 21 September 2011; Accepted 29 September 2011

Academic Editor: Hakan Arslan

Copyright © 2012 Sarah Wurster et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Chromium(VI) salts are possible contaminants of the chromium(III) pigments used as colorants in eyeshadow preparations. The use of products containing these contaminants poses acute risks for sensitization and contact allergies. Chromium(VI) compounds are also classified as carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1). An analytical method to analyse trace levels of chromium(VI) in eyeshadow was developed in this study. The method is based on an extraction of the chromium(VI) from the sample using a maximum extraction with alkali and additionally with synthetic lachrymal fluid to simulate physiological conditions. Following derivatization with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide, the extracted chromium(VI) is then quantified by spectrophotometry (540 nm). Validation tests indicated a method standard deviation (inter- and intraday) of 8.7% and a linear range up to 25 mg/kg. The average recovery was 107.9%, and the detection limit was 2.7 mg/kg. The applicability of the procedure was confirmed by the analysis of pigments and authentic eyeshadow matrices.