Table 1: Simulation results (, , and SNR = 5 dB).

True
value
LS
mean of estimated value
LS
standard deviation of estimated value
Proposed
mean of estimated value
Proposed
standard deviation of estimated value

= 0.30.22210.00880.29470.0217
= 0.20.16020.00690.19570.0153
= 0.30.22260.00730.29520.0246
= −0.09−0.03660.0084−0.08630.0223
= −0.06−0.02840.0082−0.05740.0137
= 0.20.16020.00790.19550.0128
= −0.06−0.02840.0087−0.05650.0140
= −0.04−0.02170.0085−0.03870.0138
RMSE (%)26.54376.1187
NIPT5.5400