From Diagnosis to Management; Mucocele of Stump Appendicitis, Extremely Rare Finding in an Uncommon Surgical Disease: Literature ReviewRead the full article
International Journal of Surgical Oncology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of surgical oncology.
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Laparoscopic versus Open Complete Mesocolic Excision for Right Colon Cancer
Background and Objectives. The use of complete mesocolic excision (CME) technique seems to be gaining popularity in the management of cancer colon. We aim to compare the laparoscopic approach for CME with the open approach in right colon cancer treatment with regard to the feasibility, safety, and perioperative and oncologic outcomes. Patients and Methods. A prospective study which included all patients that underwent radical right hemicolectomy for pathologic confirmed stage II or stage III tumor with CME at South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University, from January 2012 to December 2019. Patients were grouped according to the surgical approach into the laparoscopic colectomy (LCME) group (n = 48) or open colectomy (OCME) group (n = 48). Results. The mean operative time was significantly longer in the LCME group than that in the OCME group with less mean intraoperative blood loss. Conversion was required in 4 patients (8.3%) in the LCME group. The use of laparoscopy increased the number of harvested lymph nodes compared to the open approach (39.81 ± 16.74 vs. 32.65 ± 12.28, respectively, ). The laparoscopic approach was associated with a shorter time interval to first flatus as well as shorter time interval to liquid and normal diet after surgery. The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the LCME group. The complication rate was slightly lower in the LCME (14.7%) than in the OCME group (27.2%) (). The 3-year OS in the LCME group was similar to that in OCME (78.2% vs. 63.2%, respectively, value = 0.423). The three-year DFS in the laparoscopic group was higher (74.5%) than the open group (60.0%), but did not reach statistical significance ( value = 0.266). Conclusions. In conclusion, laparoscopic CME right hemicolectomy is a technically feasible and safe procedure if surgeon expertise is present. LCME has long-term oncologic outcomes (recurrence and survival) comparable to open surgery for management of patients with stage II or III colon cancer.
Critical Analysis of Stage IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients after Treatment with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy followed by Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC)
Background. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) showed promise as initial treatment for stage IIIC (SIII) epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC); however, stage IV (SIV) outcomes are rarely reported. We assessed our experience and outcomes treating newly diagnosed SIV EOC with NACT plus CRS/HIPEC compared to SIII patients. Methods. Advanced EOC from 2015–2018 managed with NACT (carboplatin/paclitaxel) due to unresectable disease or poor performance status followed by interval CRS/HIPEC were reviewed. Perioperative factors were assessed. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed by stage. Results. Twenty-seven FIGO stage IIIC (n = 12) and IV (n = 15) patients were reviewed. Median NACT cycles were 3 and 4, respectively. Post-NACT omental caking, ascites, and pleural effusions decreased/resolved in 91%, 91%, and 100% of SIII and 85%, 92%, and 71% of SIV. SIII/SIV median PCI was 21 and 20 obtaining 92% and 100% complete cytoreduction (≤0.25 cm), respectively. Median organ resections were 6 and 7, respectively. Grade III/IV surgical complications were 0% SIII and 23% SIV, without hospital mortality. Median time to adjuvant chemotherapy was 53 and 74 days, respectively (). SIII OS at 1 and 2 years was 100% and 83% and 87% and 76% in SIV (). SIII 1-year PFS was 54%; median PFS: 12 months. SIV 1- and 2- year PFS was 47% and 23%; median PFS: 12 months (). Conclusion. Outcomes in select initially diagnosed and unresectable SIV EOC are similar to SIII after NACT plus CRS/HIPEC. SIV EOC may benefit from CRS/HIPEC, and further studies should explore this treatment approach.
Inadvertent Inguinal Sarcoma Excision during Hernia Surgery: Outcomes, Gender Analysis, and Prevention
Introduction. Inadvertent excision of a soft tissue sarcoma during hernia surgery is a preventable clinical scenario that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity. Prior series are few, which only include male patients with little focus on prevention. The purpose of this study is to report the presenting features and outcomes of both male and female patients who underwent inadvertent inguinal sarcoma excision during hernia surgery. Methods. A retrospective analysis of a single sarcoma referral center identified 33 patients who were referred for definitive treatment. Patients were divided into three clinically relevant groups based on intraoperative diagnosis, sex, and location of the mass relative to the inguinal ligament. T-tests and Fisher’s exact tests were performed to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Kaplan–Meier modeling was performed to assess sarcoma-specific survival. Results. Females were younger (47 years vs. 61 years, ) and had smaller sarcomas (6.7 cm vs. 11 cm, ) compared to males. Only two sarcomas (2/33, 6%) were <4 cm in size. The majority of sarcomas in females were above the inguinal ligament (12/14, 86%). Twenty-nine (88%) underwent definitive R0 excision. The mean number of surgeries per patient was three (range 1–13), with nineteen (58%) patients requiring flap reconstruction and six (18%) requiring vascular bypass. Five patients locally recurred (15%) at a mean of 38 months after definitive excision (range 5–128 months). Overall sarcoma-specific disease-free survival was 64%, with no difference between males (80 ± 11%) and females (59 ± 17%) (). Mean follow-up was 75 months (range 5–212). Conclusion. This is the second largest study regarding inadvertent inguinal sarcoma excision and the first to include females. When a suspected hernia is >4 cm, irreducible, firm, and is growing, especially in females, consider obtaining preoperative advanced three-dimensional imaging (CT or MRI) that can differentiate a neoplasm from a hernia.
Enabling Microparticle Imprinting to Achieve Penetration and Local Endurance in the Peritoneum via High-Intensity Ultrasound (HIUS) for the Treatment of Peritoneal Metastasis
Introduction. Micro- and nanoparticles, with their submicron size, the versatility of physical and chemical properties, and easily modifiable surface, are uniquely positioned to bypass the body’s clearing systems. Nonetheless, two main problems with micro- and nanoparticles arise which limit the intraperitoneal application. The study was performed to evaluate whether HIUS enables the imprinting of microparticles and, therefore, enhances penetration and local endurance in the peritoneum. Methods. High-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) at 20 kilohertz with an output power of 70 W was applied on peritoneal tissue samples from fresh postmortem swine for different time intervals. Before the HIUS application, the surface of the samples was covered with strontium aluminate microparticles before analysis via electron microscopy. In-tissue strontium aluminate penetration and particle distribution size were measured using fluorescence microscopy on frozen thin sections. Results. With increasing HIUS durations (1 versus 5 minutes), increasing strontium aluminate particles were detected in the peritoneum. HIUS leads to a particle selection process with enhancing predominantly the penetration of smaller particles whereas larger particles had a harder time penetrating the peritoneum. Smaller particles were detected up to 277 µm ± 86 µm into the peritoneum. Conclusion. Our data indicate that HIUS might be used as a method to prepare the peritoneal tissue for micro- and nanoparticles. Higher tissue penetration rates without the increase and longer local endurance of the applied substance could be reached. More studies need to be performed to analyze the effect of HIUS in enhancing intraperitoneal drug applications.
The Management of Desmoid Tumors: A Retrospective Study of 30 Cases
Objectives. Desmoid tumor also called aggressive fibromatosis is a rare type of benign tumor. It is a mesenchymal malignancy without metastatic potential. The standard management is resection, but other options including observation may be discussed. Desmoid-type fibromatosis may occur throughout the body, but the abdominal wall is the most common site. The aim of our study was to assess the clinicoepidemiological profile, prognostic factors, and treatment outcome of desmoid tumors. Methods. A monocentric retrospective study was conducted over a period of 19 years between February 2000 and November 2019 at the oncology department of Salah Azaïz Institute. Our study concerns 30 patients with desmoid tumor. All data regarding patients were obtained from the medical record. Results. Thirty patients were included. The median age was 35 years with a female predominance (sex ratio = 0.07). A palpable mass was the most common complaint (n = 27). Median tumor size was 5 cm. The principal site of involvement was the abdominal wall (n = 14). Surgery was performed in 27 patients. The histopathology reports listed 14 (52%) cases with negative margins and 13 (48%) cases with positive margins. Radiation therapy was performed in 2 patients. One patient received tamoxifen. Local recurrence occurred in 11 patients. Two patients died of their desmoid tumor. Abdominal wall tumors have less risk of recurrence compared with other sites (). Macroscopic margin involvement (R2) was the only prognostic factor influencing disease-free-survival (). Conclusion. Desmoid tumors are aggressive tumors with a tendency for local recurrence. Abdominal wall tumors have less risk of recurrence. Macroscopic margin involvement was the only prognostic factor that affects disease-free-survival.
ALDH1 Cancer Stem Cell Marker as a Prognostic Factor in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the most common cancer with an increasing incidence in Asia. About 20% of all breast cancers are triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). BCSC is a subset of tumor cells that has stem cell-like characteristics, such as a high capacity for self-renewal and tumor initiation, which implies that BCSC may cause aggressiveness of TNBC. ALDH1 has a role in early stem cell differentiation through its function in the oxidation of retinol to retinoic acid, proposed to be a strong candidate for breast cancer stem cells. Various studies have shown that ALDH1 is one of the markers of CSC that can be used as a prognosis indicator because it can be a biological marker for poor prognostic factors in TNBC. This study assessed the prognostic survival rate with a retrospective cohort method in TNBC patients. A total of 54 of 55 patients treated at RSCM were tested for the expression of ALDH1 through an immunohistochemistry assay of breast cancer tissue using ALDH1 staining. Survival analysis was done to obtain the prognostic data of ALDH1. Positive ALDH1 expression was obtained at 38.89% in TNBC patients. One-year survival and three years of survival in TNBC patients with positive ALDH1 expression were 42.9% and 33.3%, respectively. In this study, ALDH1 can be used as a poor survival prognostic factor with HR 2.636 and value 0.013. The conclusion of this study is that ALDH1 can be used as a poor prognostic factor in TNBC patients although it cannot be an independent prognostic factor.