Critical Analysis of Stage IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients after Treatment with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy followed by Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC)Read the full article
International Journal of Surgical Oncology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of surgical oncology.
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Inadvertent Inguinal Sarcoma Excision during Hernia Surgery: Outcomes, Gender Analysis, and Prevention
Introduction. Inadvertent excision of a soft tissue sarcoma during hernia surgery is a preventable clinical scenario that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity. Prior series are few, which only include male patients with little focus on prevention. The purpose of this study is to report the presenting features and outcomes of both male and female patients who underwent inadvertent inguinal sarcoma excision during hernia surgery. Methods. A retrospective analysis of a single sarcoma referral center identified 33 patients who were referred for definitive treatment. Patients were divided into three clinically relevant groups based on intraoperative diagnosis, sex, and location of the mass relative to the inguinal ligament. T-tests and Fisher’s exact tests were performed to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Kaplan–Meier modeling was performed to assess sarcoma-specific survival. Results. Females were younger (47 years vs. 61 years, ) and had smaller sarcomas (6.7 cm vs. 11 cm, ) compared to males. Only two sarcomas (2/33, 6%) were <4 cm in size. The majority of sarcomas in females were above the inguinal ligament (12/14, 86%). Twenty-nine (88%) underwent definitive R0 excision. The mean number of surgeries per patient was three (range 1–13), with nineteen (58%) patients requiring flap reconstruction and six (18%) requiring vascular bypass. Five patients locally recurred (15%) at a mean of 38 months after definitive excision (range 5–128 months). Overall sarcoma-specific disease-free survival was 64%, with no difference between males (80 ± 11%) and females (59 ± 17%) (). Mean follow-up was 75 months (range 5–212). Conclusion. This is the second largest study regarding inadvertent inguinal sarcoma excision and the first to include females. When a suspected hernia is >4 cm, irreducible, firm, and is growing, especially in females, consider obtaining preoperative advanced three-dimensional imaging (CT or MRI) that can differentiate a neoplasm from a hernia.
Enabling Microparticle Imprinting to Achieve Penetration and Local Endurance in the Peritoneum via High-Intensity Ultrasound (HIUS) for the Treatment of Peritoneal Metastasis
Introduction. Micro- and nanoparticles, with their submicron size, the versatility of physical and chemical properties, and easily modifiable surface, are uniquely positioned to bypass the body’s clearing systems. Nonetheless, two main problems with micro- and nanoparticles arise which limit the intraperitoneal application. The study was performed to evaluate whether HIUS enables the imprinting of microparticles and, therefore, enhances penetration and local endurance in the peritoneum. Methods. High-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) at 20 kilohertz with an output power of 70 W was applied on peritoneal tissue samples from fresh postmortem swine for different time intervals. Before the HIUS application, the surface of the samples was covered with strontium aluminate microparticles before analysis via electron microscopy. In-tissue strontium aluminate penetration and particle distribution size were measured using fluorescence microscopy on frozen thin sections. Results. With increasing HIUS durations (1 versus 5 minutes), increasing strontium aluminate particles were detected in the peritoneum. HIUS leads to a particle selection process with enhancing predominantly the penetration of smaller particles whereas larger particles had a harder time penetrating the peritoneum. Smaller particles were detected up to 277 µm ± 86 µm into the peritoneum. Conclusion. Our data indicate that HIUS might be used as a method to prepare the peritoneal tissue for micro- and nanoparticles. Higher tissue penetration rates without the increase and longer local endurance of the applied substance could be reached. More studies need to be performed to analyze the effect of HIUS in enhancing intraperitoneal drug applications.
The Management of Desmoid Tumors: A Retrospective Study of 30 Cases
Objectives. Desmoid tumor also called aggressive fibromatosis is a rare type of benign tumor. It is a mesenchymal malignancy without metastatic potential. The standard management is resection, but other options including observation may be discussed. Desmoid-type fibromatosis may occur throughout the body, but the abdominal wall is the most common site. The aim of our study was to assess the clinicoepidemiological profile, prognostic factors, and treatment outcome of desmoid tumors. Methods. A monocentric retrospective study was conducted over a period of 19 years between February 2000 and November 2019 at the oncology department of Salah Azaïz Institute. Our study concerns 30 patients with desmoid tumor. All data regarding patients were obtained from the medical record. Results. Thirty patients were included. The median age was 35 years with a female predominance (sex ratio = 0.07). A palpable mass was the most common complaint (n = 27). Median tumor size was 5 cm. The principal site of involvement was the abdominal wall (n = 14). Surgery was performed in 27 patients. The histopathology reports listed 14 (52%) cases with negative margins and 13 (48%) cases with positive margins. Radiation therapy was performed in 2 patients. One patient received tamoxifen. Local recurrence occurred in 11 patients. Two patients died of their desmoid tumor. Abdominal wall tumors have less risk of recurrence compared with other sites (). Macroscopic margin involvement (R2) was the only prognostic factor influencing disease-free-survival (). Conclusion. Desmoid tumors are aggressive tumors with a tendency for local recurrence. Abdominal wall tumors have less risk of recurrence. Macroscopic margin involvement was the only prognostic factor that affects disease-free-survival.
ALDH1 Cancer Stem Cell Marker as a Prognostic Factor in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the most common cancer with an increasing incidence in Asia. About 20% of all breast cancers are triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). BCSC is a subset of tumor cells that has stem cell-like characteristics, such as a high capacity for self-renewal and tumor initiation, which implies that BCSC may cause aggressiveness of TNBC. ALDH1 has a role in early stem cell differentiation through its function in the oxidation of retinol to retinoic acid, proposed to be a strong candidate for breast cancer stem cells. Various studies have shown that ALDH1 is one of the markers of CSC that can be used as a prognosis indicator because it can be a biological marker for poor prognostic factors in TNBC. This study assessed the prognostic survival rate with a retrospective cohort method in TNBC patients. A total of 54 of 55 patients treated at RSCM were tested for the expression of ALDH1 through an immunohistochemistry assay of breast cancer tissue using ALDH1 staining. Survival analysis was done to obtain the prognostic data of ALDH1. Positive ALDH1 expression was obtained at 38.89% in TNBC patients. One-year survival and three years of survival in TNBC patients with positive ALDH1 expression were 42.9% and 33.3%, respectively. In this study, ALDH1 can be used as a poor survival prognostic factor with HR 2.636 and value 0.013. The conclusion of this study is that ALDH1 can be used as a poor prognostic factor in TNBC patients although it cannot be an independent prognostic factor.
Predictive Factors of Positive Circumferential and Longitudinal Margins in Early T3 Colorectal Cancer Resection
Background. Malignant involvement of circumferential resection margin (CRM) and longitudinal resection margin (LRM) after surgical resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with higher rates of recurrence and development of distant metastasis. This can influence the overall patient’s prognosis. The aim of the current study was to identify pathological factors as predictors for the involvement of resection margins in early T3 CRC. Patients and Methods. Fifty patients radiologically diagnosed to have cT3a/b (CRC) were included in the study. After resection, the pathological examination was performed to identify patients with positive CRM and/or LRM. Relations between the different pathological parameters and the CMR and LRM involvements were assessed. Results. Positive CRM was present in 17 cases (34%), while positive LRM was found in 6 cases (12%). The involvement of both margins was significantly associated with rectal tumors and tumors with infiltrative gross appearance, grade III, deeper invasion, and positive lymph node metastases. Also, there was a significant association between both margins’ positivity and other pathological parameters as signet ring carcinoma, tumor budding, perineural and vascular invasion, high microvessel density (MVD), and sinusoidal vascular pattern, while the presence of necrosis and infiltrative advancing tumor front was significantly associated with CRM involvement only. The depth of tumor invasion and signet ring carcinoma were identified as independent predictor factors for positive CRM and LRM, respectively. Conclusion. Preoperative identification of these pathological parameters can be a guide to tailor the management plan accordingly.
Parosteal Osteosarcoma: A Benign-Looking Tumour, Amenable to a Variety of Surgical Reconstruction
Osteosarcoma arising from cortical surface is classified into parosteal, periosteal and high-grade surface osteosarcoma. Along the spectrum, parosteal osteosarcoma occupies the well-differentiated end. It is a relatively rare disease entity, comprised only 4% of all osteosarcomas and barely reported in the literature. The objective of this study is to describe cases of parosteal osteosarcoma as well as a variety of treatment options amenable to such entity. Six cases of parosteal osteosarcoma were identified based on histopathological reports in a tertiary referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia between January 2001 and December 2019. The mean age was 29.8 years old; four of them (66.7%) were male. Distal end of femur was the most commonly involved bone (five cases, 83.3%). The patients were treated with wide excision followed by several different reconstruction methods: replacement with endoprosthesis, extracorporeal irradiation, knee arthrodesis, or prophylactic fixation. One of our patients presented with dedifferentiated component, and therefore was treated by limb ablation. While two cases died of pulmonary metastasis, other patients reported fair to excellent functional outcome.