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International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 123790, 8 pages
Research Article

Application of Fractional Wave Packet Transform for Robust Watermarking of Mammograms

1Research Scholar, Jain University and Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sambhram Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560097, Karnataka, India
2Department of Electronic Instrumentation, JSS Academy of Technical Education, Bangalore 560060, Karnataka, India

Received 21 June 2015; Revised 8 October 2015; Accepted 15 October 2015

Academic Editor: Fei Hu

Copyright © 2015 Pushpa Mala Siddaraju et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Exchanging of medical data requires efficient authentication and protection of medical data that can be illegally modified. Watermarking plays an important role in protecting, sharing, and securing medical data. In this work, a robust nonblind medical image watermarking scheme is proposed. The process involves two steps: the embedding and the extraction phase. During the embedding phase, l-level FRWPT is performed on the host image and the watermark is embedded into the modified reference image. In the second phase, inverse FRWPT is performed on the watermarked image to extract the watermark from the watermarked image. The proposed scheme is tested on mammograms images and is subjected to common attacks like Gaussian filtering, median filtering, compression, sharpening, and contrast adjustments. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is robust.