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International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 187872, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/187872
Review Article

The Current Role of Carotid Duplex Ultrasonography in the Management of Carotid Atherosclerosis: Foundations and Advances

Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapeutics, Department of Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA

Received 25 August 2011; Revised 1 December 2011; Accepted 5 December 2011

Academic Editor: Mark Morasch

Copyright © 2012 Kelly R. Byrnes and Charles B. Ross. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The management of atherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease for stroke prevention has entered a time of dramatic change. Improvements in medical management have begun to challenge traditional interventional approaches to asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Simultaneously, carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CE). Finally, multiple factors beyond degree of stenosis and symptom status now mitigate clinical decision making. These factors include brain perfusion, plaque morphology, and patency of intracranial collaterals (circle of Willis). With all of these changes, it seems prudent to review the role of carotid duplex ultrasonography in the management of atherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease for stroke prevention. Carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU) for initial and serial imaging of the carotid bifurcation remains an essential component in the management of carotid bifurcation disease. However, correlative axial imaging modalities (computer tomographic angiography (CTA) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA)) increasingly aid in the assessment of individual stroke risk and are important in treatment decisions. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss foundations and advances in CDU and (2) to evaluate the current role of CDU, in light of other imaging modalities, in the clinical management of carotid atherosclerosis.