Figure 1: Effects of PPAR-γ activation on various immune cells in vascular inflammation. PPAR-γ is expressed in various immune cells such as monocyte/macrophage, lymphocyte, dendritic cell, and neutrophil. PPAR-γ activation by endogenous and synthetic ligands could regulate inflammatory responses induced by these cells, leading to anti-inflammation and antiatherogenicity. CCR, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor; 15d-PGJ2, 15-deoxy-Δ12, 14-prostaglandin J2; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; Treg, regulatory T cell; TZD, thiazolidinedione.