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International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 160534, 8 pages
Clinical Study

Greater Endothelial Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

1Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Donald W. Reynolds Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (OUHSC), Oklahoma City, OK 73117, USA
2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
3Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, OUHSC, Oklahoma City, OK 73117, USA
4Cardiovascular Section, Department of Medicine, OUHSC, Oklahoma City, OK 73117, USA

Received 13 February 2014; Revised 5 May 2014; Accepted 5 May 2014; Published 20 May 2014

Academic Editor: Robert M. Schainfeld

Copyright © 2014 Andrew W. Gardner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We compared apoptosis, cellular oxidative stress, and inflammation of cultured endothelial cells treated with sera from 156 subjects with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and 16 healthy control subjects. Furthermore, we compared circulating inflammatory, antioxidant capacity, and vascular biomarkers between the two groups. The PAD group had a 164% higher value for endothelial cell apoptosis () and a 62% higher value for endothelial cellular reactive oxygen species production () than the control group. Furthermore, the PAD group had lower systemic antioxidant capacity measured by hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity activity (), higher inflammatory and vascular measures of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (), interleukin-8 (), serum amyloid A (), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (), adiponectin (), apolipoprotein B (), apolipoprotein CIII (), lower vascular endothelial growth factor-A (), and hepatocyte growth factor () than the control group. Subjects with PAD have greater endothelial apoptosis and oxidative stress than control subjects with low burden of comorbid conditions and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, subjects with PAD have lower systemic antioxidant capacity and angiogenic measures and higher circulating inflammatory parameters.