Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 562782, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/562782
Clinical Study

Pre- and Postoperative Evaluation by Photoplethysmography in Patients Receiving Surgery for Lower-Limb Varicose Veins

1Faculty of Medicine of Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Prof. Montenegro, Distrito de Rubião Junior, s/n, 18618970 Botucatu, SP, Brazil
2Federal University of Mato Grosso, Campus of the Araguaia, Avenida Universitária No. 3.500, 78698-000 Pontal do Araguaia, MT, Brazil
3Araçatuba Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rua José Bonifácio, 1193, Vila Mendonça, 16015-050 Araçatuba, SP, Brazil

Received 29 August 2013; Revised 6 December 2013; Accepted 24 December 2013; Published 19 February 2014

Academic Editor: Marc A. Passman

Copyright © 2014 Orlando Adas Saliba Júnior et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. K. Widmer, “Peripheral venous disorders. Prevalence and sociomedical importance,” in Basel Study III, pp. 43–50, Hans Huber, Bern, Switzerland, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  2. N. A. Nicolaides, “Classification consensus for chronic venous diseases,” Patología Vascular, vol. 1, pp. 75–85, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. M. Porter, “Reporting standards in venous disease: an update,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 635–645, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Eklöf, R. B. Rutherford, J. J. Bergan et al., “Revision of the CEAP classification for chronic venous disorders: consensus statement,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1248–1252, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. G. Darke and M. R. Andress, “The value of venography in the management of chronic venous disorders of the lower limb,” in Diagnostic Techniques and Assessment Procedures in Vascular Surgery, R. M. Greenhalgh, Ed., pp. 421–446, Grune & Stratton, London, UK, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  6. C. S. McEnroe, T. F. O'Donnell Jr., and W. C. Mackey, “Correlation of clinical findings with venous hemodynamics in 386 patients with chronic venous insufficiency,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 148–152, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. J. Welch, E. C. Faliakou, R. L. McLaughlin et al., “Comparison of descending phlebography with quantitative photoplethysmography, air plethysmography, and duplex quantitative valve closure time in assessing deep venous reflux,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 913–920, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. B. Abramowitz, L. A. Queral, W. R. Flinn et al., “The use of photoplethysmography in the assessment of venous insufficiency: a comparison to venous pressure measurements,” Surgery, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 434–441, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. S. van Bemmelen, M. A. Mattos, K. J. Hodgson et al., “Does air plethysmography correlate with duplex scanning in patients with chronic venous insufficiency?” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 796–807, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. S. Weingarten, M. Czeredarczuk, S. Scovell, C. C. Branas, G. M. Mignogna, and J. Wolferth C.C., “A correlation of air plethysmography and color-flow-assisted duplex scanning in the quantification of chronic venous insufficiency,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 750–754, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. J. Korstanje, “Venous stasis ulcers: diagnostic and surgical considerations,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 635–640, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Leon, N. Volteas, N. Labropoulos et al., “The effect of elastic stockings on the elasticity of varicose veins,” International Angiology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 173–177, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Sarin, D. A. Shields, J. Farrah, J. H. Scurr, and P. D. Coleridge-Smith, “Does venous function deteriorate in patients waiting for varicose vein surgery?” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 21–23, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. A. López-Beltrán, P. L. Blackshear, S. M. Finkelstein, and J. N. Cohn, “Non-invasive studies of peripheral vascular compliance using a non-occluding photoplethysmographic method,” Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 748–753, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Belcaro, L. Incandela, M. Veller et al., “Noninvasive investigations in vascular disease,” Angiology, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 673–706, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. J. Lane, M. L. Cuzzilla, and C. G. McMahon, “Intermediate to long-term results of repairing incompetent multiple deep venous valves using external valvular stenting,” ANZ Journal of Surgery, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 267–274, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. E. Alnaeb, V. P. Crabtree, A. Boutin, D. P. Mikhailidis, A. M. Seifalian, and G. Hamilton, “Prospective assessment of lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease in diabetic patients using a novel automated optical device,” Angiology, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 579–585, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Christopoulos and A. N. Nicolaides, “Air plethysmography,” in Surgical Management of Venous Disease, S. Raju and J. L. Villavicencio, Eds., pp. 86–96, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  19. R. A. Bays, D. A. Healy, R. G. Atnip, M. Neumyer, and B. L. Thiele, “Validation of air plethysmography, photoplethysmography, and duplex ultrasonography in the evaluation of severe venous stasis,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 721–727, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. de Maeseneer, O. Pichot, A. Cavezzi et al., “Duplex ultrasound investigation of the veins of the lower limbs after treatment for varicose veins - UIP consensus document,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 89–102, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Beraldo, A. Satpathy, and S. R. Dodds, “A study of the routine use of venous photoplethysmography in a one-stop vascular surgery clinic,” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 379–383, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. W. R. Flinn, C. S. O’Mara, L. K. Peterson, D. Blackburn, and J. S. T. Yoa, “The use of photoplethysmography in the assessment of venous insufficiency,” in Practical Noninvasive Vascular Diagnosis, R. F. Kempczinski and J. S. T. Yao, Eds., pp. 486–505, Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2nd edition, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  23. A. N. Nicolaides and C. Miles, “Photoplethysmography in the assessment of venous insufficiency,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 405–412, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. O. O. Rodríguez, P. J. Mebold, and O. I. Galleguillos, “Exernal valvuloplasty (banding) in patients with a venous ulcer of the leg,” Revista Chilena de Cirugía, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 73–76, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  25. R. M. Dunn, G. M. Fudem, R. L. Walton, F. A. Anderson Jr., and R. Malhotra, “Free flap valvular transplantation for refractory venous ulceration,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 525–531, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. F. P. Fonseca, A. L. Sarquis, and S. S. M. Evangelista, “Surgery for primary troncular varicose veins without stripping the saphenous vein-pre and post-operative evaluation by duplex scan and photoplethysmography,” Phlebology, vol. 1, pp. 419–421, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  27. S. S. M. Evangelista and F. P. Fonseca, “Photoplethysmography at the Upper Third of the leg in A new technique,” Phlebology, vol. 1, pp. 283–285, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  28. J. A. Gonzales-Fajardo, S. J. Rodríguez-Camarero, P. de Marino, V. M. A. Castro, G. J. R. March, and M. L. Carpinteiro, “Photopletysmographic evaluation of the effect of a vascular tonic drug,” Angiologia, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 167–171, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  29. K. A. L. Darvall, R. C. Sam, G. R. Bate, D. J. Adam, S. H. Silverman, and A. W. Bradbury, “Photoplethysmographic venous refilling times following ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy for symptomatic superficial venous reflux: relationship with clinical outcomes,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 267–272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. H. Rutgers, P. J. E. H. M. Kitslaar, and E. J. M. Ermers, “Photoplethysmography in the diagnosis of superficial venous valvular incompetence,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 351–353, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. Sharif-Kashani, N. Behzadnia, P. Shahabi, and M. Sadr, “Screening for deep vein thrombosis in asymptomatic high-risk patients: a comparison between digital photoplethysmography and venous ultrasonography,” Angiology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 301–307, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. C. Sam, K. A. L. Darvall, D. J. Adam, S. H. Silverman, and A. W. Bradbury, “Digital venous photoplethysmography in the seated position is a reproducible noninvasive measure of lower limb venous function in patients with isolated superficial venous reflux,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 335–341, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. W. Barnes, W. V. Garret, B. A. Hummel, E. E. Siamaker, W. Maixner, and J. E. Reinertson, “Photoplethysmographic assessement of altered cutaneous circulation in the postphebitic syndrome,” in Proceedings of AAMI 13th Annual Meeting, p. 25, Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, Washington, DC, USA, 1978.
  34. B. King and L. Brereton, “Using photoplethysmography as part of nursing assessment,” Journal of Wound Care, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 543–546, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Jiang, A. M. an Rij, R. A. Christie, G. B. Hill, and I. A. Thomson, “Non-saphenofemoral venous reflux in the groin in patients with varicose veins,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 550–557, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. V. Owens, M. A. Farber, M. L. Young et al., “The value of air plethysmography in predicting clinical outcome after surgical treatment of chronic venous insufficiency,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 961–968, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Sakurai, M. Matsushita, N. Nishikimi, and Y. Nimura, “Hemodynamic assessment of femoropopliteal venous reflux in patients with primary varicose veins,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 260–264, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. Kalodiki and A. N. Nicolaides, “Out of a recent CVI concensus: some features of a basic statement,” International Angiology, vol. 21, supplement, no. 2, pp. 2–11, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. T. Delis, M. Husmann, E. Kalodiki, J. H. Wolfe, and A. N. Nicolaides, “In situ hemodynamics of perforating veins in chronic venous insufficiency,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 773–782, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. Guillot, “Techniques used to evaluate the cutaneous microcirculation: application of photoplethysmography to the assessment of a phlebotropic agent in the treatment of leg ulcers,” Angiology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 542–548, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. M. Capitão, J. D. Menezes, and A. Gouveia-Oliveira, “Epidemiologia da insuficiência venosa crónica em Portugal,” Acta Médica Portuguesa, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 485–491, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  42. A. Scuderi, B. Raskin, F. Al Assal et al., “The incidence of venous disease in Brazil based on the CEAP classification. An epidemiological study,” International Angiology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 316–321, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. W. K. Cheng and J. Wong, “Chronic venous insufficiency in a Chinese population: an anatomic and functional study by continuous-wave Doppler and photoplethysmography,” Annals of Vascular Surgery, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 274–279, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. Gaitini, S. Torem, M. Pery, and J. K. Kaftori, “Image-directed Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of lower-limb venous insufficiency,” Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 291–297, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. S. M. Evangelista and F. P. Fonseca, “Photoplethysmography’s value in the pre- and post-operative period in the case of lower-limb primary trunk varicose veins,” Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 59–62, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  46. E. A. T. Tucker, L. E. Lamb, C. Callicott, S. D. Cooke, and E. D. Cooke, “Measurements of calf muscle pump efficiency during simulated ambulation,” International Angiology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 255–259, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. D. Iafrati, H. Welch, T. F. O'Donnell et al., “Correlation of venous noninvasive tests with the Society for Vascular Surgery/International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery clinical classification of chronic venous insufficiency,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1001–1007, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus