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International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Volume 2018, Article ID 1420136, 5 pages
Review Article

A Review of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Hemodialysis Fistula

Department of Vascular Surgery, 251 General Hospital of Hellenic Air Force, Athens, Greece

Correspondence should be addressed to Ioannis Bountouris; moc.liamg@siruotnuobi

Received 7 January 2018; Accepted 26 February 2018; Published 27 March 2018

Academic Editor: Mark Morasch

Copyright © 2018 Ioannis Bountouris et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The number of patients in dialysis increases every year. In this review, we will evaluate the role of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) according to patency of arteriovenous fistula and grafts. The main indication of PΤΑ is stenosis > 50% or obstruction of the vascular lumen of an arteriovenous fistula and graft. It is usually performed under local anesthesia. The infection rate is as low as the number of complications. Fistula can be used in dialysis in the same day without the need for a central venous catheter. Primary patency is >50% in the first year while primary assisted patency is 80–90% in the same time period. Repeated PTA is as durable as the primary PTA. An early PTA carries a risk of new interventions. Cutting balloon can be used as a second-line method. Stents and covered stents are kept for the management of complications and central outflow venous stenosis. PTA is the treatment of choice for stenosis or obstruction of dialysis fistulas. Repeated PTA may be needed for better patency. Drug eluting balloon may become the future in PTA of dialysis fistula, but more trials are needed.