Table 2: Comparative results of driving cycle test.

ControllerAmp-hour consumption

Nonlinear optimal [11]4.48 km/11.97 AH
Nonlinear robust [11]4.4825 km/10.78 AH
CNN based backstepping4.4834 km/10.75 AH
CNN based optimal adaptive4.4795 km/10.70 AH