Table of Contents
International Journal of Vehicular Technology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 314597, 17 pages
Research Article

Development of Estimation Force Feedback Torque Control Algorithm for Driver Steering Feel in Vehicle Steer by Wire System: Hardware in the Loop

1UTM-Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Vehicle System Engineering I-Kohza, North Wing, MJIIT, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 11 November 2014; Revised 10 April 2015; Accepted 30 April 2015

Academic Editor: C. S. Shankar Ram

Copyright © 2015 Sheikh Muhammad Hafiz Fahami et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In conventional steering system, a feedback torque is produced from the contact between tire and road surface and its flows through mechanical column shaft directly to driver. This allows the driver to sense the steering feel during driving. However, in steer by wire (SBW) system, the elimination of the mechanical column shaft requires the system to generate the feedback torque which should produce similar performance with conventional steering system. Therefore, this paper proposes a control algorithm to create the force feedback torque for SBW system. The direct current measurement approach is used to estimate torque at the steering wheel and front axle motor as elements to the feedback torque, while, adding the compensation torque for a realistic feedback torque. The gain scheduling with a linear quadratic regulator controller is used to control the feedback torque and to vary a steering feel gain. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a real-time hardware in the loop (HIL) methodology is developed using Matlab XPC target toolbox. The results show that the proposed algorithm is able to generate the feedback torque similar to EPS steering system. Furthermore, the compensation torque is able to improve the steering feel and stabilize the system.