International Journal of Vehicular Technology The latest articles from Hindawi © 2018 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. A Novel Approach of Improving Battery Performance and Longevity of the Developed Electrically Assisted Triwheeler Vehicle by Implementing Torque Sensor Technology Mon, 17 Jul 2017 10:06:54 +0000 This paper presents a new approach to improving the battery performance and its longevity by the implementation of torque sensor pedal technology on the developed electric triwheeler vehicle (i.e., wheelchair). The paper has also discussed integration of the torque sensor technology with the overall electrical system of the vehicle. Incorporating the components of torque sensor technology reduces the human effort immensely by providing assistance from the battery bank to drive a hub motor while maneuvering the wheelchair using the torque sensor pedal. Field tests were carried out in three different stages, one with pedal, one with the throttle only, and with varying the load on the wheelchair, to distinguish the effect of load test on battery performance using the pedal. Results of the field tests reveal that the state of charge of batteries has been minimized using the pedal due to the contribution of the muscular energy of the user along with the battery energy to meet the total energy demand of the motor. Analyzing test results with the torque sensor pedal clarifies that the vehicle covers a longer distance, lessens power dissipation from the batteries, and reduces energy consumption from the batteries, which leads to improvement of the battery performance and its longevity ensuring sustainability of the electric vehicle. Md. Jaber Al Rashid, Ataur Rahman, Abu Raihan Mohammad Siddique, and A. K. M. Abdul Malek Azad Copyright © 2017 Md. Jaber Al Rashid et al. All rights reserved. Integration of an Adaptive Infotainment System in a Vehicle and Validation in Real Driving Scenarios Wed, 15 Feb 2017 08:07:28 +0000 More services, functionalities, and interfaces are increasingly being incorporated into current vehicles and may overload the driver capacity to perform primary driving tasks adequately. For this reason, a strategy for easing driver interaction with the infotainment system must be defined, and a good balance between road safety and driver experience must also be achieved. An adaptive Human Machine Interface (HMI) that manages the presentation of information and restricts drivers’ interaction in accordance with the driving complexity was designed and evaluated. For this purpose, the driving complexity value employed as a reference was computed by a predictive model, and the adaptive interface was designed following a set of proposed HMI principles. The system was validated performing acceptance and usability tests in real driving scenarios. Results showed the system performs well in real driving scenarios. Also, positive feedbacks were received from participants endorsing the benefits of integrating this kind of system as regards driving experience and road safety. Miguel Angel Galarza, Teresa Bayona, and Josep Paradells Copyright © 2017 Miguel Angel Galarza et al. All rights reserved. Driver Behavior Modeling: Developments and Future Directions Wed, 28 Dec 2016 08:05:37 +0000 The advances in wireless communication schemes, mobile cloud and fog computing, and context-aware services boost a growing interest in the design, development, and deployment of driver behavior models for emerging applications. Despite the progressive advancements in various aspects of driver behavior modeling (DBM), only limited work can be found that reviews the growing body of literature, which only targets a subset of DBM processes. Thus a more general review of the diverse aspects of DBM, with an emphasis on the most recent developments, is needed. In this paper, we provide an overview of advances of in-vehicle and smartphone sensing capabilities and communication and recent applications and services of DBM and emphasize research challenges and key future directions. Najah AbuAli and Hatem Abou-zeid Copyright © 2016 Najah AbuAli and Hatem Abou-zeid. All rights reserved. Experimental Test of Artificial Potential Field-Based Automobiles Automated Perpendicular Parking Thu, 13 Oct 2016 14:19:01 +0000 Automobiles automated perpendicular parking using Artificial Potential Field (APF) is discussed in this paper. The Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) used for carrying out experiments is introduced first; UGV configuration, kinematics, and motion controller are included. Based on discretized form of the parking space, the APF is generated. Holonomic path for the vehicle parking is found first; path modification to satisfy minimum turning-radius constraint is performed based on Reeds-Shepp curve connections. Optimization efforts are included to remove extra maneuvers and to reduce length of the path. Afterwards waypoints are generated as reference for the vehicle to track. Perpendicular parking tests with several different start configurations are demonstrated; based on the test results the automated parking framework proposed in this paper is considered to be effective. Yiqun Dong, Youmin Zhang, and Jianliang Ai Copyright © 2016 Yiqun Dong et al. All rights reserved. Enhancing V2X Communication Based on a New Comb-Pilot Estimation Approach Sun, 18 Sep 2016 09:34:22 +0000 Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication systems, known as V2X technologies, have increasingly attracted attention in current research on road safety and traffic ergonomics. The performance evaluation of these communication systems is an important step before their potential integration and use in real systems. V2X communications are based on the IEEE 802.11p standard also known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE). V2X can affect human life; therefore a deep study related to V2X performance evaluation should be done in order to be sure about the system reliability. In this context, we have elaborated a deep study related to the effect of transmission range on V2X communications by considering the terminal mobility. First, we have evaluated the performance of the PHY layer on the IEEE 802.11p using simulation. Secondly, we have conducted real case measurements using the Arada LocoMate Transmission system. The obtained results shows the necessity to optimize the quality of transmission in V2X communications. Consequently, we propose in this paper a new comb-pilot technique to enhance the quality of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) transmission. Our proposal consists in two new uses of the pilot subcarrier estimation technique in order to decrease the elevated bit error rate (BER). The quality of transmission (QoT) is first evaluated relating to the pilot symbol rearranged positions. Second, we proposed to optimize the QoT by adding two supplementary pilot symbols as it can offer better channel estimation results. Based on the performance evaluation of our proposal, it is confirmed that both of rearrangement and the adding of the pilot patterns lead to performance enhancement compared to baseline model (standardized one). Aymen Sassi, Yassin El Hillali, Atika Revenq, Faiza Charfi, and Lotfi Kamoun Copyright © 2016 Aymen Sassi et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulation Analysis of an Oversteer In-Wheel Small Electric Vehicle Integrated with Four-Wheel Drive and Independent Steering Thu, 30 Jun 2016 13:05:49 +0000 Similar to conventional vehicle, most in-wheel small EVs that exist today are designed with understeer (US) characteristic. They are safer on the road but possess poor cornering performance. With recent in-wheel motor and steer-by wire technology, high cornering performance vehicle does not limit to sport or racing cars. We believe that oversteer (OS) design approach for in-wheel small EV can increase the steering performance of the vehicle. However, one disadvantage is that OS vehicle has a stability limit velocity. In this paper, we proposed a Four-Wheel Drive and Independent Steering (4WDIS) for in-wheel small EV with OS characteristic. The aim of implementing 4WDIS is to develop a high steer controllability and stability of the EV at any velocity. This paper analyses the performance of OS in-wheel small EV with 4WDIS by using numerical simulation. Two cornering conditions were simulated which are (1) steady-state cornering at below critical velocity and (2) steady-state cornering over critical velocity. The objective of the simulation is to understand the behavior of OS in-wheel small EV and the advantages of implementing the 4WDIS. The results show that an in-wheel small EV can achieve high cornering performance at low speed while maintaining stability at high speed. Muhammad Izhar Ishak, Hirohiko Ogino, and Yoshio Yamamoto Copyright © 2016 Muhammad Izhar Ishak et al. All rights reserved. Modeling, Validation, and Control of Electronically Actuated Pitman Arm Steering for Armored Vehicle Thu, 14 Apr 2016 08:33:27 +0000 In this study, 2 DOF mathematical models of Pitman arm steering system are derived using Newton’s law of motion and modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The developed steering model is included with a DC motor model which is directly attached to the steering column. The Pitman arm steering model is then validated with actual Pitman arm steering test rig using various lateral inputs such as double lane change, step steer, and slalom test. Meanwhile, a position tracking control method has been used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the validated model to be implemented in active safety system of a heavy vehicle. The similar method has been used to test the actual Pitman arm steering mechanism using hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) technique. Additional friction compensation is added in the HILS technique in order to minimize the frictional effects that occur in the mechanical configuration of the DC motor and Pitman arm steering. The performance of the electronically actuated Pitman arm steering system can be used to develop a firing-on-the-move actuator (FOMA) for an armored vehicle. The FOMA can be used as an active safety system to reject unwanted yaw motion due to the firing force. Vimal Rau Aparow, Khisbullah Hudha, Zulkiffli Abd Kadir, Megat Mohamad Hamdan Megat Ahmad, and Shohaimi Abdullah Copyright © 2016 Vimal Rau Aparow et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Managing DSRC and WAVE Standards Operations in a V2V Scenario Thu, 24 Mar 2016 07:19:44 +0000 International Journal of Vehicular Technology Copyright © 2016 International Journal of Vehicular Technology. All rights reserved. Energy Management Strategy Implementation for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Genetic Algorithm Tuned Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle Controller Sun, 21 Feb 2016 16:47:59 +0000 To reduce apace extraction of natural resources, to plummet the toxic emissions, and to increase the fuel economy for road transportation, hybrid vehicles are found to be promising. Hybrid vehicles use batteries and engine to propel the vehicle which minimizes dependence on liquid fuels. Battery is an important component of hybrid vehicles and is mainly characterized by its state of charge level. Here a modified state of charge estimation algorithm is applied, which includes not only coulomb counting but also open circuit voltage, weighting factor, and correction factor to track the run time state of charge efficiently. Further, presence of battery and engine together needs a prevailing power split scheme for their efficient utilization. In this paper, a fuel efficient energy management strategy for power-split hybrid electric vehicle using modified state of charge estimation method is developed. Here, the optimal values of various governing parameters are firstly computed with genetic algorithm and then fed to Pontryagin’s minimum principle to decide the threshold power at which engine is turned on. This process makes the proposed method robust and provides better chance to improve the fuel efficiency. Engine efficient operating region is identified to operate vehicle in efficient regions and reduce fuel consumption. Aishwarya Panday and Hari Om Bansal Copyright © 2016 Aishwarya Panday and Hari Om Bansal. All rights reserved. Application of Genetic Algorithms for Driverless Subway Train Energy Optimization Mon, 15 Feb 2016 14:35:28 +0000 After an introduction on the basic aspects of electric railway transports, focusing mainly on driverless subways and their related automation systems (ATC, ATP, and ATO), a technique for energy optimization of the train movement through their control using genetic algorithms will be presented. Genetic algorithms are a heuristic search and iterative stochastic method used in computing to find exact or approximate solutions to optimization problems. This optimization process has been calculated and tested on a real subway line in Milan through the implementation of a dedicated Matlab code. The so-defined algorithm provides the optimization of the trains movement through a coast control table created by the use of a genetic algorithm that minimizes the energy consumption and the train scheduled time. The obtained results suggest that the method is promising in minimizing the energy consumption of the electric trains. Morris Brenna, Federica Foiadelli, and Michela Longo Copyright © 2016 Morris Brenna et al. All rights reserved. Increasing the Cruise Range and Reducing the Capital Cost of Electric Vehicles by Integrating Auxiliary Unit with the Traction Drive Wed, 10 Feb 2016 14:08:46 +0000 Poor cruise performance of Electric Vehicles (EVs) continues to be the primary reason that impends their market penetration. Adding more battery to extend the cruise range is not a viable solution as it increases the structural weight and capital cost of the EV. Simulations identified that a vehicle spends on average 15% of its total time in braking, signifying an immense potential of the utilization of regenerative braking mechanism. Based on the analysis, a 3 kW auxiliary electrical unit coupled with the traction drive during braking events increases the recoverable energy by 8.4%. In addition, the simulation revealed that, on average, the energy drawn from the battery is reduced by 3.2% when traction drive is integrated with the air-conditioning compressor (an auxiliary electrical load). A practical design solution of the integrated unit is also included in the paper. Based on the findings, it is evident that the integration of an auxiliary unit with the traction drive results in enhancing the energy capturing capacity of the regenerative braking mechanism and decreases the power consumed from the battery. Further, the integrated unit boosts other advantages such as reduced material cost, improved reliability, and a compact and lightweight design. N. Satheesh Kumar Copyright © 2016 N. Satheesh Kumar. All rights reserved. Simple Simulated Propagation Modeling and Experimentation within and around Buildings at 2700 MHz Mon, 08 Feb 2016 09:23:03 +0000 There is a growing interest in understanding wave behavior in urban and suburban environment for 5th generation broadband applications. With the advent of using broadband technologies in buildings, office space and vehicle have become a necessity on a large scale. Models, predictions, and calculations for in-building, within a vehicle or near a reflective object with microscale details, are becoming highly classified in a competitive telecom environment. This paper provides an improved understanding of signal strength behavior within suburban residences with predictions prequalified using a vehicular scanner. Supporting predictions are provided by a ray tracing algorithm developed for dissertation. Results indicate signal strength variation of more than 50 dB from “strong signal” locations such as room centers and far corners to “weak signal” locations where shadowing and tunneling effects are evident. Based on this unique classification a scheme is proposed which indicates that specular scattering provides the major signal energy at more than 70% of the locations within the residences. Finally, an observed rake stabilizing effect is attributed to the proximity of strong scatterers. Tanay Bhatt and Jonathan Bredow Copyright © 2016 Tanay Bhatt and Jonathan Bredow. All rights reserved. A Modified Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Dummy Head Model for Lateral Impact Assessment Sun, 31 Jan 2016 14:17:08 +0000 Hybrid III six-year-old (6YO) child dummy head model was developed and validated for frontal impact assessment according to the specifications contained in Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Part 572.122, Subpart N by Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC). This work is aimed at improving biofidelity of the head for frontal impact and also extending its application to lateral impact assessment by modifying the head skin viscoelastic properties and validating the head response using the scaled nine-year-old (9YO) child cadaver head response recently published in the literature. The modified head model was validated for two drop heights for frontal, right, and left parietal impact locations. Peak resultant acceleration of the modified head model appeared to have good correlation with scaled 9YO child cadaver head response for frontal impact on dropping from 302 mm height and fair correlation with 12.3% difference for 151 mm drop height. Right parietal peak resultant acceleration values correlate well with scaled 9YO head experimental data for 153 mm drop height, while fair correlation with 16.4% difference was noticed for 302 mm drop height. Left parietal, however, shows low biofidelity for the two drop heights as the difference in head acceleration response was within 30%. The modified head model could therefore be used to estimate injuries in vehicle crash for head parietal impact locations which cannot be measured by the current hybrid III dummy head model. I. A. Rafukka, B. B. Sahari, A. A. Nuraini, and A. Manohar Copyright © 2016 I. A. Rafukka et al. All rights reserved. Modelling and Simulation of ERTMS for Current and Future Mobile Technologies Thu, 17 Dec 2015 12:22:26 +0000 Nowadays, train control in-lab simulation tools play a crucial role in reducing extensive and expensive on-site railway testing activities. In this paper, we present our contribution in this arena by detailing the internals of our European Railway Train Management System in-lab demonstrator. This demonstrator is built over a general-purpose simulation framework, Riverbed Modeler, previously Opnet Modeler. Our framework models both ERTMS subsystems, the Automatic Train Protection application layer based on movement authority message exchange and the telecommunication subsystem based on GSM-R communication technology. We provide detailed information on our modelling strategy. We also validate our simulation framework with real trace data. To conclude, under current industry migration scenario from GSM-R legacy obsolescence to IP-based heterogeneous technologies, our simulation framework represents a singular tool to railway operators. As an example, we present the assessment of related performance indicators for a specific railway network using a candidate replacement technology, LTE, versus current legacy technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no similar initiative able to measure the impact of the telecommunication subsystem in the railway network availability. Christian Pinedo, Marina Aguado, Igor Lopez, and Jasone Astorga Copyright © 2015 Christian Pinedo et al. All rights reserved. Rate Request Sequenced Bit Loading Secondary User Reallocation Algorithm for DMT Systems in Cognitive Radio Thu, 10 Dec 2015 07:36:31 +0000 A rate request sequenced bit loading reallocation algorithm is proposed. The spectral holes detected by spectrum sensing (SS) in cognitive radio (CR) are used by secondary users. This algorithm is applicable to Discrete Multitone (DMT) systems for secondary user reallocation. DMT systems support different modulation on different subchannels according to Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). The maximum bits and power that can be allocated to each subband is determined depending on the channel state information (CSI) and secondary user modulation scheme. The spectral holes or free subbands are allocated to secondary users depending on the user rate request and subchannel capacity. A comparison is done between random rate request and sequenced rate request of secondary user for subchannel allocation. Through simulations it is observed that with sequenced rate request higher spectral efficiency is achieved with reduced complexity. S. Chris Prema and Dara Sudha Rani Copyright © 2015 S. Chris Prema and Dara Sudha Rani. All rights reserved. Power Flows and Efficiency of Output Compound e-CVT Thu, 01 Oct 2015 12:06:08 +0000 Hybridization is the most promising vehicular technology to get significant improvements of the vehicle efficiency and performance in the short-term. Mechanical transmissions for hybrid vehicles are very often multiple modes transmission, which permit improving the performance in different working conditions. In this context, optimal design and control of these transmissions are a key point to improve the performance of the vehicles, and mathematical models which supports the design can play an important role in this field. In this work, an approach for evaluating the performance of Output Compound Split e-CVT (electric Continuously Variable Transmission) in steady-state is proposed. This approach, in addition to a kinematic analysis of the device, leads to the calculation of the internal power circulation modes and the efficiency of the device in different working conditions. Francesco Bottiglione and Giacomo Mantriota Copyright © 2015 Francesco Bottiglione and Giacomo Mantriota. All rights reserved. New Method of Car Body Panel External Straightening: Tools of Method Sun, 26 Jul 2015 14:09:11 +0000 Recently repair and recovery vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting things are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Basics of magnetic-pulse attraction, both ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic thin-walled sheet metal, are explored. Inductor system calculation models of magnetic-pulse straightening tools are presented. Final analytical expressions for excited efforts calculation in the tools under consideration are introduced. According to the obtained analytical expressions, numerical evaluations of excited forces were executed. The volumetric epures of the attractive force radial distributions for different types of inductors were built. The practical testing of magnetic-pulse straightening with research tools is given. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic-pulse straightening of car body panels. Andrey Gnatov and Schasyana Argun Copyright © 2015 Andrey Gnatov and Schasyana Argun. All rights reserved. Development of Estimation Force Feedback Torque Control Algorithm for Driver Steering Feel in Vehicle Steer by Wire System: Hardware in the Loop Sun, 31 May 2015 13:36:45 +0000 In conventional steering system, a feedback torque is produced from the contact between tire and road surface and its flows through mechanical column shaft directly to driver. This allows the driver to sense the steering feel during driving. However, in steer by wire (SBW) system, the elimination of the mechanical column shaft requires the system to generate the feedback torque which should produce similar performance with conventional steering system. Therefore, this paper proposes a control algorithm to create the force feedback torque for SBW system. The direct current measurement approach is used to estimate torque at the steering wheel and front axle motor as elements to the feedback torque, while, adding the compensation torque for a realistic feedback torque. The gain scheduling with a linear quadratic regulator controller is used to control the feedback torque and to vary a steering feel gain. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a real-time hardware in the loop (HIL) methodology is developed using Matlab XPC target toolbox. The results show that the proposed algorithm is able to generate the feedback torque similar to EPS steering system. Furthermore, the compensation torque is able to improve the steering feel and stabilize the system. Sheikh Muhammad Hafiz Fahami, Hairi Zamzuri, and Saiful Amri Mazlan Copyright © 2015 Sheikh Muhammad Hafiz Fahami et al. All rights reserved. Channel Impulse Response Estimation in IEEE 802.11p via Data Fusion and MMSE Estimator Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:34:47 +0000 Tracking the channel impulse response in systems based on the IEEE 802.11p standard, the most widely accepted standard for the physical layer in vehicular area networks (VANETs), is still an open research topic. In this paper we aim to improve previously proposed channel estimators by utilizing data aided algorithm that includes the channel decoding to enhance the quality of the estimated data. Moreover we propose a novel technique that exploits information provided by external sensors like GPS or speedometer, usually present in vehicles. The algorithm proposed so far has been analyzed in non-line-of-sight link conditions; in this paper we present an analysis of performances in the line-of-sight condition as well. Simulations show that both proposals give considerable improvements in terms of packet error rate and channel estimation error in the highway scenario which is surely the most stressing environment for the channel response tracker. Giulio Ministeri and Lorenzo Vangelista Copyright © 2015 Giulio Ministeri and Lorenzo Vangelista. All rights reserved. Link Reliability Based Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Wed, 25 Mar 2015 06:57:28 +0000 We propose an enhancement for the well-known greedy perimeter stateless routing (GPSR) protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), which exploits information about link reliability when one-hop vehicles are chosen for forwarding a data packet. In the proposed modified routing scheme, a tagged vehicle will select its one-hop forwarding vehicle based on reliability of the corresponding communication link. We define link reliability as the probability that a direct link among a pair of neighbour vehicles will remain alive for a finite time interval. We present a model for computing link reliability and use this model for the design of reliability based GPSR. The proposed protocol ensures that links with reliability factor greater than a given threshold alone are selected, when constructing a route from source to destination. The modified routing scheme shows significant improvement over the conventional GPSR protocol in terms of packet delivery ratio and throughput. We provide simulation results to justify the claim. Siddharth Shelly and A. V. Babu Copyright © 2015 Siddharth Shelly and A. V. Babu. All rights reserved. Design of Commute Carpooling Based on Fixed Time and Routes Wed, 31 Dec 2014 11:19:09 +0000 Although the private carpooling market of China has grown rapidly, it has been embarrassed by problems such as obstructed information, disordered expense, and frequent crimes currently. In this paper, a commute carpooling program based on fixed time and routes is designed and corresponding carpooling information platform is built to realize information retrieval, information matching, and mutual selection and evaluation. We have practiced the program in Huaian, China, and then evaluated it using the improved time-expense impedance model and VISSIM simulation system. The result shows that the carpooling program can reduce 65%~86% of the time-expense impedance and optimize some network parameters up to 20%~40%. Since it will help in reducing the travel time and cost greatly, improving safety and economy during carpooling, and easing the traffic congestion, it is a worthy carpooling mode to be extended in China. Guiliang Zhou, Kai Huang, and Lina Mao Copyright © 2014 Guiliang Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Traction Control of Electric Vehicles Using Sliding-Mode Controller with Tractive Force Observer Sun, 21 Dec 2014 06:26:53 +0000 Traction control is an important element in modern vehicles to enhance drive efficiency, safety, and stability. Traction is produced by friction between tire and road, which is a nonlinear function of wheel slip. In this paper, a sliding-mode control approach is used to design a robust traction controller. The control objective is to operate vehicles such that a desired wheel slip ratio is achieved. A nonlinearity observer is employed to estimate tire tractive forces, which are used in the control law. Simulation and experimental results have illustrated the success of the proposed observer-based controller. Suwat Kuntanapreeda Copyright © 2014 Suwat Kuntanapreeda. All rights reserved. A Review of Optimal Energy Management Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tue, 18 Nov 2014 08:47:26 +0000 Presence of an alternative energy source along with the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) appeals for optimal power split between them for minimum fuel consumption and maximum power utilization. Hence HEVs provide better fuel economy compared to ICE based vehicles/conventional vehicle. Energy management strategies are the algorithms that decide the power split between engine and motor in order to improve the fuel economy and optimize the performance of HEVs. This paper describes various energy management strategies available in the literature. A lot of research work has been conducted for energy optimization and the same is extended for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). This paper concentrates on the battery powered hybrid vehicles. Numerous methods are introduced in the literature and based on these, several control strategies are proposed. These control strategies are summarized here in a coherent framework. This paper will serve as a ready reference for the researchers working in the area of energy optimization of hybrid vehicles. Aishwarya Panday and Hari Om Bansal Copyright © 2014 Aishwarya Panday and Hari Om Bansal. All rights reserved. Neck Moment Characterization of Restrained Child Occupant at Realistic Nontest Standard Higher Impact Speed of 32.2 km/h Thu, 11 Sep 2014 08:10:17 +0000 The effects of bullet vehicle crash impact angle, child restraint system design, and restraint harness slack at side impact speed of 32.2 km/h (20 mph) on moments sustained at the neck by a three-year-old child are investigated. Mathematical models are built using the response surface method based on simulation results whereby good fitness is achieved. The singular and cross interactive effect of each predictor on the neck moment are analyzed. The number of significant parameters affecting the neck moment is shown to be the largest for wide impact angles and the impact angle parameter is largely revealed to be the most sensitive. An ideal safe range for low neck moment has been established to be within angles 45° and 65°. It is further shown that the nature of all parameters effect on the neck moment is highly dependent on the impact angle range. S. Shasthri, V. Kausalyah, Qasim H. Shah, Kassim A. Abdullah, Moumen M. Idres, and S. V. Wong Copyright © 2014 S. Shasthri et al. All rights reserved. Handover Performance over a Coordinated Contiguous Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenario in the LTE-Advanced System Sun, 31 Aug 2014 12:11:34 +0000 Although various carrier aggregation deployment scenarios (CADSs) have been introduced in the LTE-Advanced system, issues related to insufficient eNB coverage that leads to low throughput and high drop call have yet to be solved. This paper proposes a new deployment scenario called coordinated contiguous-CADS (CC-CADS), which utilizes two-component carriers (CCs) that operate on two frequencies located in a contiguous band. Each CC antenna is directed to a cell boundary of the other CC. The handover performance of users with various mobility speeds under CC-CADS has been investigated and compared with various deployment scenarios proposed by 3GPP. Simulation results show that the received signal reference power (RSRP) enhancement and performed handover, ping-pong, drop call, and outage probabilities reductions in CC-CADS outperformed the 3GPP’s CADSs, thus leading to reduced interruption time, improved spectral efficiency, and seamless handover. Ibraheem Shayea, Mahamod Ismail, Rosdiadee Nordin, and Hafizal Mohamad Copyright © 2014 Ibraheem Shayea et al. All rights reserved. Driver’s Fatigue Detection Based on Yawning Extraction Wed, 06 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The increasing number of traffic accidents is principally caused by fatigue. In fact, the fatigue presents a real danger on road since it reduces driver capacity to react and analyze information. In this paper we propose an efficient and nonintrusive system for monitoring driver fatigue using yawning extraction. The proposed scheme uses face extraction based support vector machine (SVM) and a new approach for mouth detection, based on circular Hough transform (CHT), applied on mouth extracted regions. Our system does not require any training data at any step or special cameras. Some experimental results showing system performance are reported. These experiments are applied over real video sequences acquired by low cost web camera and recorded in various lighting conditions. Nawal Alioua, Aouatif Amine, and Mohammed Rziza Copyright © 2014 Nawal Alioua et al. All rights reserved. Autonomous, Distributed Parking Lot Vacancy Management Using Intervehicle Communication Mon, 21 Jul 2014 08:00:01 +0000 We have developed a method of managing vacancy information of a large parking lot in a distributed manner using only intervehicle communication. A group of parking spaces is defined as a cluster. Vacancy information of a cluster is managed by a vehicle in it. This vehicle is called a cluster head. The proposed method generates a communication path topology between cluster heads. The topology is a tree structure with the cluster head of the cluster nearest to the parking lot entrance as the root node. Cluster heads are ranked in order of the number of vacant spaces and the distance to the shop entrance. The vehicle entering the parking lot collects vacancy information of clusters. This information is transmitted along the tree structure from the lowest ranking cluster head. We have developed a simulation model for a parking lot that can accommodate nearly 1,000 vehicles and used it to evaluate the proposed method. We have confirmed that the proposed method generates less communication traffic and enables the vehicle entering a parking lot to collect vacancy information about the area near the shop entrance with a higher probability and in a shorter time. Shohei Yamashita and Kazumasa Takami Copyright © 2014 Shohei Yamashita and Kazumasa Takami. All rights reserved. A Probabilistic Analysis of Path Duration Using Routing Protocol in VANETs Thu, 17 Jul 2014 11:45:51 +0000 In recent years, various routing metrics such as throughput, end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, path duration, and so forth have been used to evaluate the performance of routing protocols in VANETs. Among these routing metrics, path duration is one of the most influential metrics. Highly mobile vehicles cause frequent topology change in vehicular network environment that ultimately affects the path duration. In this paper, we have derived a mathematical model to estimate path duration using border node-based most forward progress within radius (B-MFR), a position based routing protocol. The mathematical model for estimation of path duration consists of probability of finding next-hop node in forwarding region, estimation of expected number of hops, probability distribution of velocity of nodes, and link duration between each intermediate pair of nodes. The analytical results for the path duration estimation model have been obtained using MATLAB. The model for path duration estimation has been simulated in NS2. Each of the analytical results has been verified through respective simulation results. The result analysis clearly reveals that path duration increases with the increase in transmission range and node density and decreases with the increase in the number of hops in the path and velocity of the nodes. Ram Shringar Rao, Sanjay Kumar Soni, Nanhay Singh, and Omprakash Kaiwartya Copyright © 2014 Ram Shringar Rao et al. All rights reserved. A Review of Active Yaw Control System for Vehicle Handling and Stability Enhancement Thu, 12 Jun 2014 09:25:19 +0000 Yaw stability control system plays a significant role in vehicle lateral dynamics in order to improve the vehicle handling and stability performances. However, not many researches have been focused on the transient performances improvement of vehicle yaw rate and sideslip tracking control. This paper reviews the vital elements for control system design of an active yaw stability control system; the vehicle dynamic models, control objectives, active chassis control, and control strategies with the focus on identifying suitable criteria for improved transient performances. Each element is discussed and compared in terms of their underlying theory, strengths, weaknesses, and applicability. Based on this, we conclude that the sliding mode control with nonlinear sliding surface based on composite nonlinear feedback is a potential control strategy for improving the transient performances of yaw rate and sideslip tracking control. M. K. Aripin, Yahaya Md Sam, Kumeresan A. Danapalasingam, Kemao Peng, N. Hamzah, and M. F. Ismail Copyright © 2014 M. K. Aripin et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Controllers for a Light-Weighted All-Electric Vehicle Using Chebyshev Neural Network Tue, 22 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Two nonlinear controllers are proposed for a light-weighted all-electric vehicle: Chebyshev neural network based backstepping controller and Chebyshev neural network based optimal adaptive controller. The electric vehicle (EV) is driven by DC motor. Both the controllers use Chebyshev neural network (CNN) to estimate the unknown nonlinearities. The unknown nonlinearities arise as it is not possible to precisely model the dynamics of an EV. Mass of passengers, resistance in the armature winding of the DC motor, aerodynamic drag coefficient and rolling resistance coefficient are assumed to be varying with time. The learning algorithms are derived from Lyapunov stability analysis, so that system-tracking stability and error convergence can be assured in the closed-loop system. The control algorithms for the EV system are developed and a driving cycle test is performed to test the control performance. The effectiveness of the proposed controllers is shown through simulation results. Vikas Sharma and Shubhi Purwar Copyright © 2014 Vikas Sharma and Shubhi Purwar. All rights reserved.