International Journal of Zoology
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Acceptance rate14%
Submission to final decision117 days
Acceptance to publication17 days
CiteScore1.500
Journal Citation Indicator-
Impact Factor-

Behavioral Determinants of Mating Success in Blackbuck under Semienclosed Condition: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shuklaphanta National Park, Nepal

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International Journal of Zoology publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of zoology.

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International Journal of Zoology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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Research Article

Bacteria Load Determination of the Intestinal Microbiota and Identification of Spiroplasma and Wolbachia in Anopheles gambiae

The gut microbiota of mosquitoes is composed of a range of microorganisms. Among its microorganisms, some affect the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to characterize some bacteria of the intestinal microbiota in Anopheles gambiae (An. gambiae) females, a major vector of malaria transmission in Benin. The symbiote bacteria of the microbiota of female laboratory An. gambiae and female wild An. gambiae were identified by the culture method. The count was done on media plate count agar (PCA), and subsequently, the bacterial load was calculated. Comparison of batches bacterial load was carried out with the variance analysis test (ANOVA). Finally, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to investigate the presence of a few bacterial genera influencing the vector capacity of An. gambiae. The study found that the microbiota of female An. gambiae is home to the bacteria belonging to the Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, and other unidentified bacterial gene regardless of its nature and condition. Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference between the bacterial load of the laboratory and wild mosquitoes depending on the parous and gorged states; on the other hand, there was a significant difference between the bacterial loads of the laboratory and wild mosquitoes according to the nulliparous and nongorged states. The search for a few bacterial genera influencing the vector capacity of female An. gambiae has been negative for Spiroplasma bacteria regardless of its nature and condition. PCR revealed the presence of Wolbachia bacteria for only gorged Kisumu sensitive An. gambiae. Wolbachia’s presence at An. gambiae suggests that this type of bacteria could be used to develop new effective and sustainable approaches in the vector control.

Research Article

Assessment of Bird Species Composition, Relative Abundance, and Distributions in East Gojjam Wetland Habitats, Ethiopia

Many bird species depend on wetlands and the surrounding habitats. However, the status of these wetlands, as well as their biodiversity, is poorly understood and maintained. From January to February 2021, we assessed the compositions, relative abundances, and distributions of bird species throughout five wetland habitats in the East Gojjam zone. In each study site, systematic random sampling techniques were applied at a 4 km interval along the wetland habitats. Bray–Curtis cluster analysis was conducted using PAST software. During the study period, Simpson’s Index and Shannon–Wiener Index were also used to assess the diversity of bird species at various study sites. As a result, a total of 55 bird species from 20 families and 9 orders were identified. During the study period, 49 species were classified as least concern, two were critically endangered species, two were vulnerable species, two were endangered species, and one was an endemic species. During the study, overgrazing and agricultural expansion were identified as threats to biodiversity. To conserve the biological richness of these ecosystems, a wetland conservation strategy and a sustainable usage system are required.

Research Article

Diversity, Abundance, and Habitat Association of Medium and Large-Sized Mammals in Tiski Waterfall, Awi Zone, Ethiopia

The reliable data on faunal diversity, abundance, and habitat preference are essential for proposing and establishing relevant conservation interventions. A survey was done from September 2019 to March 2021 to investigate the diversity, relative abundance, and habitat association of large and medium mammals in Tiski Waterfall, Ethiopia. Data were collected using the line transect survey method in both habitat types. In cliff sites, the point transect was also used. The habitats were populated by large and medium animal species that favor dense forest and shrubland habitats near water sources. During the research, three different habitat categories were evaluated (dense forest, shrubland, and cliff sites). Ten mammalian species were discovered. During the wet season, there were 243 ± 6.6 populations recorded, while during the dry season, there were 204 ± 6.8. Seasonal differences in species abundance were statistically significant . The total populations of the three habitat types were 198.2 ± 7.39, 135 ± 5.35, and 114 ± 5.16 for dense forest, shrubland, and cliff site, respectively. All three habitat categories had a great difference in species abundance . The olive baboon (Papio anubis) was the most common, accounting for 38 percent of the population, followed by the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), which accounted for 23 percent. Leopard (Panthera pardus) and common bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) contributed the least to the total, accounting for only 2% each of the total. The highest diversity of mammalian species was found in dense forest (H′ = 0.98), followed by shrubland (H′ = 0.90), and the cliff location has the lowest diversity (H′ = 0.57). The maximum uniformity of the species was found in dense forests (J = 0.51), followed by a shrub region (J = 0.43), and the remaining of the habitat (J = 0.35). Dense forest and shrubland had the highest species similarity (Sl = 0.67), followed by shrubland and cliff site (SI = 0.61). In dense forests with cliff sites, the similarity was lowest (SI = 0.31) in each. To limit the impact of agricultural growth on big and medium mammals, good habitat management is required.

Research Article

New Data on Breeding Strategies and Reproductive Success of the Globally Threatened Turtle Dove Co-Occurring with the “Competitive” Collared Dove and the “Predatory” Maghreb Magpie in Olive Orchards

Interactions between co-occurring species, including competition and predation, comprise critical processes regulating local community structure, habitat use, and diversity. We monitored nesting habitats, breeding chronology, and reproductive success rates to describe the patterns of spatiotemporal organization of three co-habiting species: the “native” turtle dove, the “invasive” collared dove, and the “predatory” Maghreb magpie. We defined nesting site parameters, breeding chronology dates, and success rates to explain how these species are dispersed in space and time. Similarly, predation attacks were evaluated. Patterns of habitat use were best explained by fear of predation and competition. Both doves selected nesting sites far away from the predatory Magpie to protect their nests. Equally, sympatric Columbidae turtle dove and collared dove were segregated horizontally and vertically only in space to reduce competition inside olive orchards. On the other side, Maghreb magpie started the breeding activity first, most probably to benefit from food abundance targeted in doves’ nests (eggs and nestlings). Further, breeding success was higher in both doves, despite predation pressure exercised by the Magpie and other reptiles. Magpie nests were colonized by the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius). Finally, this study provides the first and only detailed data on nest-niche of the turtle dove co-occurring with competitor and predator species, in the entire Northwest Africa range. Additionally, our data provide an opportunity of large-scale comparative studies of the nesting niche and breeding performances of the turtle dove, collared dove, and Maghreb magpie complex.

Research Article

Effect of Feed Form on Body Conformation Traits of Different Hybrids of Broiler Chickens

This research was conducted to measure the exterior characteristics in four hybrids of broilers fed pelleted and commercial mash feed. A total of 112 one-day-old chicks from four broiler hybrids, namely, Arbor Acre, Cobb 500, Marshall, and Ross 308 were used for this experimentation and allocated into four treatments with 28 birds of each hybrid and were replicated four times with 7 birds per replicate in a 2 × 4 factorial experiment. Pelleted and milled (mash) commercial feed was used for this experiment. The feeding trial lasted at the age of 59 days old, and data on the conformation trait were recorded. The results of the conformation traits showed no significant difference () in any of the parameters measured. Most of the conformation traits examined were positive and strongly correlated with one another. Finally as a suggestion, further deep study needed to be conducted by considering different factors including an interaction effect of the main factors.

Research Article

Major Anthropogenic Interactions Determining the Conservation Status of Endemic Mammals of Eastern Africa

Africa, as a continent of diversity, harbors many cosmopolitan and endemic mammals, 17 of the world’s 20 orders of terrestrial mammals. The Horn of Africa alone harbors nearly 220 mammalian species, including many threatened species. Mammals, particularly endemics ones, are threatened by anthropogenic challenges impacting their abundance, the number of reproductive individuals, and geographic ranges. Human population, in Eastern Africa, has been growing fast, and political and civil unrest aggravate human impacts on the environment. In particular, this study focused on identifying factors that are influencing the conservation status of endemic mammals of Eastern Africa using a multinomial logistic regression model. Agricultural expansion and deforestation threatened vulnerable (AOR: 2.650, ) and critically endangered species (AOR: 4.763, ) more than any other factors. Habitat loss persists as a major factor when critically endangered species (AOR: 3.520, ) are compared to near threatened species. Collectively, threatened species are mainly impacted by habitat loss (AOR: 2.678, ), agricultural expansion, and deforestation (AOR: 2.376, ). In the next 50 years, threats to biodiversity are likely to grow as human populations increase. There is no a generalized global model to measure the intensity of agricultural expansion, habitat loss, hunting, and human settlement in the protected areas. Attempts should be made to develop conservation strategies that aim to articulate an array of several conservation threats together across space and time.

International Journal of Zoology
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate14%
Submission to final decision117 days
Acceptance to publication17 days
CiteScore1.500
Journal Citation Indicator-
Impact Factor-
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.