Foraging Ecology and Diurnal Activity Patterns of Klipspringer (Oreotragus oreotragus) in Yetefet Woyenat Forest, East Gojjam, EthiopiaRead the full article
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Bird Diversity and Community Composition in Kafta Sheraro National Park, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Birds are one of the most important components of biodiversity that has huge ecological, economical, and esthetic values. The main objective of this study was to assess diversity and species composition of bird community in Kafta Sheraro National Park, Northern Ethiopia. Data were collected from August 2017 to March 2018 in the national park. Point count method was employed to collect data on bird species diversity and species composition. Direct observations of birds and discussion with local people and scouts to assess potential threats of avifauna in the park were made. Shannon diversity index was used to calculate the species diversity. A total of 158 bird species belonging to 52 different families and 20 orders were identified. Of the recorded species, there were 76.6% residents, 15.8% Palaearctic migrants (PM), 5.7% Intra-African migrants (IM), and 1.9% partial migrants. Accipitiridae (11.4%) had the highest species followed by Columbidae, Estrilidae, and Ploceidae with 7%, 5.7%, and 4.4% species, respectively. The highest Shannon–Weiner diversity index (H′ = 4.50) was recorded during February while the lowest (H′ = 2.18) was recorded during March. Species richness of the park showed no significance difference among the study months (χ2 = 10.046, df = 5, ). Agricultural expansions, fire, livestock grazing, mining, and poaching were the major threats of the park bird species. Kafta Sheraro National Park is one of the areas with high avian composition in Ethiopia. In the park, wildlife watching in general and ornithological tourism in particular should be developed. Anthropogenic disturbances should also be minimized to conserve avian diversity of the park.
Reproductive Strategy of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) in a Natural Environment in the Nkam River, Littoral Cameroon
A study on the reproductive strategy of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus was conducted from October 2015 to August 2016, in the Nkam River in Yabassi, Littoral Region of Cameroon. For this purpose, 154 specimens of C. nigrodigitatus with total mean weight of 829.96 ± 829.58 g and total mean length of 367 ± 156 mm collected from artisanal fishermen were used. Twenty-nine (29) females at stage V of sexual maturity were selected for the evaluation of the fecundity. It appears that the oogenesis in C. nigrodigitatus is of an asynchronous type with multiple laying spread over a long period. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) peaks in June (17.9 ± 7.1 for females and 1.06 ± 0.27 for males). Hepatosomatic index (HSI) was higher in females than in males throughout the year. The mean condition factor K was 1.07 ± 0.09%. The breeding season occurred from April to October during the rainy season. Gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices were positively correlated with rainfall, contrary to the K factor, which has been strongly and negatively correlated with this physical parameter. The sex ratio of 1M: 1.5F was in favour of females, thus reflecting an “r” type reproductive strategy. Absolute fecundity was estimated at 1374 ± 1022 oocytes for individuals of 107.3 ± 111.9 g mean weight. Mean relative fecundity was 14 ± 3 oocytes/g of body weight. It was recommended that future work focuses on the captivity of this species.
Contribution to the Study of Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance of Insect Fauna in Salt Wetlands of Setif Region, Algeria
The present study aims to assess entomofauna biodiversity at three saline wetlands, located in Setif region, Northeastern Algeria. To determine the predominant environmental factors in the distribution of entomofauna, six different stations and three transects in each station were chosen according to the distribution of plant and soil salinity in each transect. Results were analysed, and different ecological indexes and analytical methods were applied, from 2016 to 2017. The total of individual insects belonging to 9 orders, 71 families, and 131 species were collected from the three sites. The highest abundance was in Coleoptera (38.17%) while the lowest abundance was found in Ephemeroptera (1.53%). The highest number of individuals (11438) was found in Bazer site in 2016, while the lowest number of individuals (4921) was in site Chott Frain in 2017. The highest abundance of insects (109) was recorded in transect BS1T16, and the lowest abundance of species was recorded in transect HS1T36. Diversity and equitability indices showed highest values in HS1T16 (H = 4,356) and HS1T37 (E = 0.7282). Some ecological parameters showed a significant relationship between the insects occurrence, distribution of plants, and type of soil.
Factors Influencing Seasonal and Daily Dynamics of the Genus Stomoxys Geoffroy, 1762 (Diptera: Muscidae), in the Adamawa Plateau, Cameroon
The rangelands of the Vina Division on the Adamawa Plateau are densely infested with Stomoxyinae, but little is known about their species composition and ecology. A trap-transect survey was carried out in three villages: Galim, Mbidjoro, and Velambai, using Nzi (n = 3), Vavoua (n = 3), and Biconical (n = 3) traps, all baited with octenol. Three traps of each trap type were set in each of the study villages, and collections were carried out daily. In total, 3,762 Stomoxys spp. were collected from October 2016 to June 2017 and identified using standard keys into five species: Stomoxys niger niger, S. calcitrans, S. niger bilineatus, S. omega, and S. xanthomelas. Galim recorded the highest apparent density of stomoxyines (30 stomoxyines/trap/day) with a statistically significant difference (). The Vavoua trap was an ideal tool for Stomoxyinae collection. Stomoxyines abundantly occurred at the end of the dry season (March 2017) and beginning of the rainy season (May 2017). The monthly rainfall positively influenced monthly ADTs of Stomoxyinae. Their diurnal biting activity was bimodal in the rainy season and unimodal in the dry season. The daily activity peak was between 14 h and 16 h with a mean temperature of 31°C, a mean wind speed of 1.5 m/s, and a mean humidity of 50%. The daily trap catch was positively influenced by temperature and wind speed but negatively influenced by rainfall and air humidity. Weather variables influenced Stomoxys spp. monthly and daily ADTs.
Allometric Growth of the Freshwater Crab Potamon algeriense (Bott, 1967) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae) in Oued Zegzel, a Mountain Stream, in the Northeast of Morocco
A morphometric study has been carried out for the first time on the population of the freshwater crab Potamon algeriense inhabiting Oued Zegzel, a tributary of the Lower Moulouya River, in the northeast of Morocco. Crabs were collected monthly over one year (October 2017 to September 2018) by excavating burrows and searching under blocks. A total of 669 crabs were obtained, 291 females and 378 males. Regression analysis was performed among carapace width (CW), as the reference dimension, and wet weight (WW), carapace length (CL), length and width of abdomen (AL and AW), and length and width of the cheliped (ChL and ChW) were chosen as dependent variables, using the allometric method. Based on Somerton’s technique, the onset of sexual maturity was estimated to occur at around 27mm CW for males and 32mm CW for females. The growth patterns recorded for P. algeriense are associated with the species reproductive strategy, i.e., preparation of body parts involved in female acquisition and egg incubation, like the male cheliped and the female abdomen, respectively. Among the 291 females sampled, 10.20% were left-handed and 89.80% were right-handed, while among the 378 males examined, 10.32% were left-handed and 89.68% were right-handed. It was concluded that the cheliped width and the abdominal width of P. algeriense are the morphometric variables most appropriate to estimate the size at the beginning of the sexual maturity for males and females of this species, respectively.
Composition and Diversity Variation of Avifauna, along Different Vegetative Habitat Types in a Human-Modified Area, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
Role of conservation of birds has been least considered during modification of vegetative habitats, in studies conducted on birds in protected areas and urban landscapes in Sri Lanka. The present study was intended to assess the relationship between landscape and the composition and distribution of avifauna in University of Kelaniya, a human-modified area. The study was conducted selecting 8 habitats including open ground, low, moderately, and highly wooded habitats. A survey was conducted from 0530 to 0730 hr in the morning and 1630-1830 hr in the evening from August to December 2016 ensuring eight sampling events at each habitat. Point counting method (15 m radius) was used along a 100 m line transect. Species diversity parameters were analyzed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to characterize the habitats with bird species. A total of 40 species were recorded. Species richness (r = 27) and species heterogeneity (H′ = 3.09) were the highest in Mee amba sevana habitat while species evenness (J = 0.977) was the highest in medical center area habitat. Total abundance (n = 135) was recorded in Saiba ground. Asian brown flycatcher (Saiba ground, medical center area, Mee amba sevana, Girls’ Hostel complex, and English language unit habitats) and white-bellied drongo (Saiba ground, medical center area, Girls’ Hostel complex, English language unit, and Thal weta premises) were widely distributed (z > 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). The second largest distribution was recorded by black-hooded oriole, blue-tailed bee-eater, cattle egret, feral pigeon, brown-headed barbet, red-vented bulbul, and rose-ringed parakeet within four habitats (z > 0, Kruskal-Wallis). According to the PCA, Saiba ground habitat was categorized by open ground dwelling birds, and Mee amba sevana was characterized by frugivorous birds, while Girls’ Hostel complex habitat was characterized by carnivorous birds. Comparatively, medical center area habitat contributes to the highest species diversity with many flowering and fruiting trees while providing sufficient food resources and high floral structural complexity. Recorded avifaunal community composition ensures considerable conservation value to university premises of Kelaniya. Awareness and monitoring programs are recommended for sustainable conservation of bird species in Kelaniya.