Combined Effect of Methanol Extracts and Essential Oils of Callistemon rigidus (Myrtaceae) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae) against Anopheles gambiae Giles larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)Read the full article
International Journal of Zoology publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of zoology.
International Journal of Zoology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Foraging Ecology and Diurnal Activity Patterns of Klipspringer (Oreotragus oreotragus) in Yetefet Woyenat Forest, East Gojjam, Ethiopia
The foraging ecology and diurnal activity patterns of the klipspringer (Oreotragus oreotragus) were studied in Yetefet Woyenat Forest from September 2017 to August 2018 during the dry and wet seasons. Data were collected by visual observation using focal and scan sampling methods. The result indicated that klipspringers were observed feeding on grasses, herbs, trees, and shrubs, but were primarily browsers during both wet and dry seasons. Carissa edulis was the most consumed plant species in the study area, followed by Rosa abyssinica and Maytenus arbutifolia. Despite moderate ambient temperatures, klipspringers were mostly active during early morning and late afternoon, feeding 45.56% of the daylight hours during the dry season and 43.75% during the wet season. Klipspringers were facing threats due to human activities in the study area. Thus, appropriate conservation measures should be taken to reduce disturbance of their ecology.
Bird Diversity and Community Composition in Kafta Sheraro National Park, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Birds are one of the most important components of biodiversity that has huge ecological, economical, and esthetic values. The main objective of this study was to assess diversity and species composition of bird community in Kafta Sheraro National Park, Northern Ethiopia. Data were collected from August 2017 to March 2018 in the national park. Point count method was employed to collect data on bird species diversity and species composition. Direct observations of birds and discussion with local people and scouts to assess potential threats of avifauna in the park were made. Shannon diversity index was used to calculate the species diversity. A total of 158 bird species belonging to 52 different families and 20 orders were identified. Of the recorded species, there were 76.6% residents, 15.8% Palaearctic migrants (PM), 5.7% Intra-African migrants (IM), and 1.9% partial migrants. Accipitiridae (11.4%) had the highest species followed by Columbidae, Estrilidae, and Ploceidae with 7%, 5.7%, and 4.4% species, respectively. The highest Shannon–Weiner diversity index (H′ = 4.50) was recorded during February while the lowest (H′ = 2.18) was recorded during March. Species richness of the park showed no significance difference among the study months (χ2 = 10.046, df = 5, ). Agricultural expansions, fire, livestock grazing, mining, and poaching were the major threats of the park bird species. Kafta Sheraro National Park is one of the areas with high avian composition in Ethiopia. In the park, wildlife watching in general and ornithological tourism in particular should be developed. Anthropogenic disturbances should also be minimized to conserve avian diversity of the park.
Reproductive Strategy of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) in a Natural Environment in the Nkam River, Littoral Cameroon
A study on the reproductive strategy of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus was conducted from October 2015 to August 2016, in the Nkam River in Yabassi, Littoral Region of Cameroon. For this purpose, 154 specimens of C. nigrodigitatus with total mean weight of 829.96 ± 829.58 g and total mean length of 367 ± 156 mm collected from artisanal fishermen were used. Twenty-nine (29) females at stage V of sexual maturity were selected for the evaluation of the fecundity. It appears that the oogenesis in C. nigrodigitatus is of an asynchronous type with multiple laying spread over a long period. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) peaks in June (17.9 ± 7.1 for females and 1.06 ± 0.27 for males). Hepatosomatic index (HSI) was higher in females than in males throughout the year. The mean condition factor K was 1.07 ± 0.09%. The breeding season occurred from April to October during the rainy season. Gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices were positively correlated with rainfall, contrary to the K factor, which has been strongly and negatively correlated with this physical parameter. The sex ratio of 1M: 1.5F was in favour of females, thus reflecting an “r” type reproductive strategy. Absolute fecundity was estimated at 1374 ± 1022 oocytes for individuals of 107.3 ± 111.9 g mean weight. Mean relative fecundity was 14 ± 3 oocytes/g of body weight. It was recommended that future work focuses on the captivity of this species.
Contribution to the Study of Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance of Insect Fauna in Salt Wetlands of Setif Region, Algeria
The present study aims to assess entomofauna biodiversity at three saline wetlands, located in Setif region, Northeastern Algeria. To determine the predominant environmental factors in the distribution of entomofauna, six different stations and three transects in each station were chosen according to the distribution of plant and soil salinity in each transect. Results were analysed, and different ecological indexes and analytical methods were applied, from 2016 to 2017. The total of individual insects belonging to 9 orders, 71 families, and 131 species were collected from the three sites. The highest abundance was in Coleoptera (38.17%) while the lowest abundance was found in Ephemeroptera (1.53%). The highest number of individuals (11438) was found in Bazer site in 2016, while the lowest number of individuals (4921) was in site Chott Frain in 2017. The highest abundance of insects (109) was recorded in transect BS1T16, and the lowest abundance of species was recorded in transect HS1T36. Diversity and equitability indices showed highest values in HS1T16 (H = 4,356) and HS1T37 (E = 0.7282). Some ecological parameters showed a significant relationship between the insects occurrence, distribution of plants, and type of soil.
Factors Influencing Seasonal and Daily Dynamics of the Genus Stomoxys Geoffroy, 1762 (Diptera: Muscidae), in the Adamawa Plateau, Cameroon
The rangelands of the Vina Division on the Adamawa Plateau are densely infested with Stomoxyinae, but little is known about their species composition and ecology. A trap-transect survey was carried out in three villages: Galim, Mbidjoro, and Velambai, using Nzi (n = 3), Vavoua (n = 3), and Biconical (n = 3) traps, all baited with octenol. Three traps of each trap type were set in each of the study villages, and collections were carried out daily. In total, 3,762 Stomoxys spp. were collected from October 2016 to June 2017 and identified using standard keys into five species: Stomoxys niger niger, S. calcitrans, S. niger bilineatus, S. omega, and S. xanthomelas. Galim recorded the highest apparent density of stomoxyines (30 stomoxyines/trap/day) with a statistically significant difference (). The Vavoua trap was an ideal tool for Stomoxyinae collection. Stomoxyines abundantly occurred at the end of the dry season (March 2017) and beginning of the rainy season (May 2017). The monthly rainfall positively influenced monthly ADTs of Stomoxyinae. Their diurnal biting activity was bimodal in the rainy season and unimodal in the dry season. The daily activity peak was between 14 h and 16 h with a mean temperature of 31°C, a mean wind speed of 1.5 m/s, and a mean humidity of 50%. The daily trap catch was positively influenced by temperature and wind speed but negatively influenced by rainfall and air humidity. Weather variables influenced Stomoxys spp. monthly and daily ADTs.
Allometric Growth of the Freshwater Crab Potamon algeriense (Bott, 1967) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae) in Oued Zegzel, a Mountain Stream, in the Northeast of Morocco
A morphometric study has been carried out for the first time on the population of the freshwater crab Potamon algeriense inhabiting Oued Zegzel, a tributary of the Lower Moulouya River, in the northeast of Morocco. Crabs were collected monthly over one year (October 2017 to September 2018) by excavating burrows and searching under blocks. A total of 669 crabs were obtained, 291 females and 378 males. Regression analysis was performed among carapace width (CW), as the reference dimension, and wet weight (WW), carapace length (CL), length and width of abdomen (AL and AW), and length and width of the cheliped (ChL and ChW) were chosen as dependent variables, using the allometric method. Based on Somerton’s technique, the onset of sexual maturity was estimated to occur at around 27mm CW for males and 32mm CW for females. The growth patterns recorded for P. algeriense are associated with the species reproductive strategy, i.e., preparation of body parts involved in female acquisition and egg incubation, like the male cheliped and the female abdomen, respectively. Among the 291 females sampled, 10.20% were left-handed and 89.80% were right-handed, while among the 378 males examined, 10.32% were left-handed and 89.68% were right-handed. It was concluded that the cheliped width and the abdominal width of P. algeriense are the morphometric variables most appropriate to estimate the size at the beginning of the sexual maturity for males and females of this species, respectively.