Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Zoology
Volume 2012, Article ID 623730, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/623730
Research Article

Physical Condition, Sex, and Age-Class of Eastern Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Forested and Open Habitats of West Virginia, USA

1College of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI 54481, USA
2Northern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV 26287, USA
3U.S. Geological Survey, Virginia Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA

Received 7 March 2012; Revised 15 May 2012; Accepted 29 May 2012

Academic Editor: Michael Thompson

Copyright © 2012 Breanna L. Riedel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. M. Burton and G. E. Likens, “Salamander populations and biomass in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire,” Copeia, vol. 1975, pp. 541–546, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  2. J. W. Petranka, Salamanders of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1998.
  3. M. C. Grover, “Influence of cover and moisture on abundances of the terrestrial salamanders Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon glutinosus,” Journal of Herpetology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 489–497, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. W. Petranka, M. E. Eldridge, and K. E. Haley, “Effects of timber harvesting on southern Appalachian salamanders,” Conservation Biology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 363–370, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. A. Homyack and C. A. Haas, “Long-term effects of experimental forest harvesting on abundance and reproductive demography of terrestrial salamanders,” Biological Conservation, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 110–121, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. G. deMaynadier and M. L. Hunter Jr., “Relationship between forest management and amphibian ecology: a review of the North American literature,” Environmental Reviews, vol. 3, pp. 230–261, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  7. K. R. Russell, T. B. Wigley, W. M. Baughman, H. G. Hanlin, and W. M. Ford, “Responses of southeastern amphibians and reptiles to forest management: a review,” in Southern Forest Science: Past, Present, and Future, H. M. Rauscher and K. Johnsen, Eds., GTR SRS-75, pp. 319–334, USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  8. C. E. Moorman, K. R. Russell, and C. H. Greenberg, “Reptile and amphibian response to hardwood forest management and early successional habitat,” in Ecology and Management of Early Successional Habitats in the Central Hardwood Region, USA, C. H. Greenberg, B. Collins, and F. R. Thompson, Eds., pp. 191–208, Springer, The Netherlands, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  9. A. L. Buergler, Forage production and nutritive value in a temperate Appalachian silvopasture [M.S. thesis], Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va, USA, 2004.
  10. D. M. Marsh, K. A. Thakur, K. C. Bulka, and L. B. Clarke, “Dispersal and colonization through open fields by a terrestrial, woodland salamander,” Ecology, vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 3396–3405, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. L. Riedel, K. R. Russell, W. M. Ford, K. P. O'Neill, and H. W. Godwin, “Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 124, no. 3-4, pp. 229–236, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. N. Ash, R. C. Bruce, J. Castanet, and H. Francillon-Vieillot, “Population parameters of Plethodon metcalfi on a 10-year-old clearcut and in nearby forest in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains,” Journal of Herpetology, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 445–452, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. M. Knapp, C. A. Haas, D. N. Harpole, and R. L. Kirkpatrick, “Initial effects of clearcutting and alternative silvicultural practices on terrestrial salamander abundance,” Conservation Biology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 752–762, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. Monti, M. Hunter, and J. Witham, “An evaluation of the artificial cover object (ACO) method for monitoring populations of the redback salamander Plethodon cinereus,” Journal of Herpetology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 624–629, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. J. Hyde and T. R. Simons, “Sampling plethodontid salamanders: sources of variability,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 624–632, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. R. Moseley, W. M. Ford, and J. W. Edwards, “Local and landscape scale factors influencing edge effects on woodland salamanders,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 151, no. 1–4, pp. 425–435, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. L. Riedel, Habitat relationships of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian grazing systems [M.S. thesis], University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Stevens Point, Wis, USA, 2006.
  18. J. D. Moore, “Use of native dominant wood as a new coverboard type for monitoring eastern red-backed salamanders,” Herpetological Review, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 268–271, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. R. Gillette and M. G. Peterson, “The benefits of transparency: candling as a simple method for determining sex in red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus),” Herpetological Review, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 233–235, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. S. Quinn and B. M. Graves, “A technique for sexing red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus),” Herpetological Review, vol. 30, no. 1, p. 32, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. M. Davis and K. Ovaska, “Individual recognition of amphibians: effects of toe clipping and fluorescent tagging on the salamander Plethodon vehiculum,” Journal of Herpetology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 217–225, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. J. Green, “Mass/length residuals: measures of body condition or generators of spurious results?” Ecology, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 1473–1483, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. I. Schulte-Hostedde, B. Zinner, J. S. Millar, and G. J. Hickling, “Restitution of mass-size residuals: validating body condition indices,” Ecology, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 155–163, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. M. Jakob, S. D. Marshall, and G. W. Uetz, “Estimating fitness: a comparison of body condition indices,” Oikos, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. J. Omerod and S. J. Tyler, “Assessments of body condition in Dippers Cinclus cinclus: potential pitfalls in the derivation and use of condition indices based on body proportions,” Ringing and Migration, vol. 11, pp. 31–41, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  26. J. H. Zar, Biostatistical Analysis, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 1996.
  27. R. R. Sokal and F. J. Rolf, Biometry, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, Cailf, USA, 2nd edition, 1981.
  28. H. H. Hood, “A note on the red-backed salamander at Rochester, New York,” Copeia, vol. 1934, pp. 141–142, 1934. View at Google Scholar
  29. A. Mathis, “Territories of male and female terrestrial salamanders: costs, benefits, and intersexual spatial associations,” Oecologia, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 433–440, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Sayler, “The reproductive ecology of the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, in Maryland,” Copeia, vol. 1966, pp. 183–193, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  31. J. D. Moore and R. L. Wyman, “Eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in a highly acid forest soil,” American Midland Naturalist, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 95–105, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. W. Nagel, “Life history of the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, in northeastern Tennessee,” Herpetologica, vol. 33, pp. 13–18, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  33. F. H. Test and B. A. Bingham, “Census of a population of the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus),” The American Midland Naturalist, vol. 39, pp. 362–372, 1948. View at Google Scholar
  34. B. B. Rothermel and R. D. Semlitsch, “An experimental investigation of landscape resistance of forest versus old-field habitats to emigrating juvenile amphibians,” Conservation Biology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1324–1332, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. A. G. Rittenhouse and R. D. Semlitsch, “Grasslands as movement barriers for a forest-associated salamander: migration behavior of adult and juvenile salamanders at a distinct habitat edge,” Biological Conservation, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 14–22, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. I. Young and R. H. Yahner, “Distribution of, and Microhabitat Use by, Woodland Salamanders Along Forest-Farmland Edges,” Canadian Field-Naturalist, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. P. Gibbs, “Distribution of woodland amphibians along a forest fragmentation gradient,” Landscape Ecology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 263–268, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. R. Moseley, W. M. Ford, and J. W. Edwards, “Local and landscape scale factors influencing edge effects on woodland salamanders,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 151, no. 1–4, pp. 425–435, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Mathis, “Territoriality in a terrestrial salamander: the influence of resource quality and body size,” Behaviour, vol. 112, no. 3-4, pp. 162–175, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. L. Moore, C. E. Williams, T. H. Martin, and W. J. Moriarity, “Influence of season, geomorphic surface and cover item on capture, size and weight of desmognathus ochrophaeus and Plethodon cinereus in Allegheny Plateau riparian forests,” American Midland Naturalist, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 39–45, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. G. Jaeger, J. A. Wicknick, M. R. Griffis, and C. D. Anthony, “Socioecology of a terrestrial salamander: juveniles enter adult territories during stressful foraging periods,” Ecology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 533–543, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. G. Jaeger, “Microhabitats of a terrestrial forest salamander,” Copeia, vol. 1980, pp. 265–268, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  43. D. M. Marsh and M. A. Goicochea, “Monitoring terrestrial salamanders: biases caused by intense sampling and choice of cover objects,” Journal of Herpetology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 460–466, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. R. Spotila, “Role of temperature and water in the ecology of lungless salamanders,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 42, pp. 95–125, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  45. R. G. Jaeger and D. C. Forester, “Social behavior of plethodontid salamanders,” Herpetologica, vol. 49, pp. 163–175, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  46. R. G. Jaeger, D. Kalvarsky, and N. Shimizu, “Territorial behaviour of the red-backed salamander: expulsion of intruders,” Animal Behaviour, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 490–496, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. E. M. Smith and F. H. Pough, “Intergeneric aggression among salamanders,” Journal of Herpetology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. G. Demaynadier and M. L. Hunter Jr., “Effects of silvicultural edges on the distribution and abundance of amphibians in maine,” Conservation Biology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 340–352, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. A. Marvin, “Life history and population characteristics of the salamander Plethodon kentucki with a review of Plethodon life histories,” American Midland Naturalist, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 385–400, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. J. Hall and D. P. Stafford, “Studies in the life history of Wehrle’s salamander, Plethodon wehrle,” Herpetologica, vol. 28, pp. 300–309, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  51. K. Ovaska and P. T. Gregory, “Population structure, growth, and reproduction in a Vancouver Island population of the salamander Plethodon vehiculum,” Herpetologica, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 133–143, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. A. Williams, Amphibian population and community characteristics, habitat relationships, and first-year responses to clearcutting in a central Appalachian industrial forest [M.S. thesis], Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va, USA, 2003.
  53. H. R. Pulliam, “Sources, sinks and population regulation,” American Naturalist, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 652–661, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. H. H. Welsh and S. Droege, “A case for using plethodontid salamanders for monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem integrity of north american forests,” Conservation Biology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 558–569, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus