Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Zoology
Volume 2016, Article ID 1808912, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1808912
Research Article

Cytochrome c Oxidase Sequences of Zambian Wildlife Helps to Identify Species of Origin of Meat

1Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, Centre for Animal Health, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag Box X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa
2School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia
3School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, Morioka, Japan

Received 15 July 2016; Revised 22 October 2016; Accepted 27 October 2016

Academic Editor: Marco Cucco

Copyright © 2016 Michelo Syakalima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Ferrier, “The economics of agricultural and wildlife smuggling,” United States Development Agency Economic Research Report, vol. 8, pp. 1–35, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  2. Interpol, “Illegal Ivory and Rhino horn trade targets of Interpol co-ordinated operation across Southern Africa,” http://www.interpol.int/News-and-media/News-media-releases/2010/PR036.
  3. C. Bellis, K. J. Ashton, L. Freney, B. Blair, and L. R. Griffiths, “A molecular genetic approach for forensic animal species identification,” Forensic Science International, vol. 134, no. 2-3, pp. 99–108, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H.-M. Hsieh, L.-H. Huang, L.-C. Tsai et al., “Species identification of rhinoceros horns using the cytochrome b gene,” Forensic Science International, vol. 136, no. 1–3, pp. 1–11, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. W. Parson, K. Pegoraro, H. Niederstätter, M. Föger, and M. Steinlechner, “Species identification by means of the cytochrome b gene,” International Journal of Legal Medicine, vol. 114, no. 1-2, pp. 23–28, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. O. Folmer, M. Black, W. Hoeh, R. Lutz, and R. Vrijenhoek, “DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates,” Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 294–299, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. K. Verma and L. Singh, “Novel universal primers establish identity of an enormous number of animal species for forensic application,” Molecular Ecology Notes, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 28–31, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Lynch and P. E. Jarrell, “A method for calibrating molecular clocks and its application to animal mitochondrial DNA,” Genetics, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 1197–1208, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. D. N. Hebert, A. Cywinska, S. L. Ball, and J. R. DeWaard, “Biological identifications through DNA barcodes,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, vol. 270, no. 1512, pp. 313–321, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. D. N. Hebert, S. Ratnasingham, and J. R. DeWaard, “Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 270, no. 1, pp. S96–S99, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Ratnasingham and P. D. N. Hebert, “bold: the barcode of life data system (http://www.barcodinglife.org),” Molecular Ecology Notes, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 355–364, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. N. Dawnay, R. Ogden, R. McEwing, G. R. Carvalho, and R. S. Thorpe, “Validation of the barcoding gene COI for use in forensic genetic species identification,” Forensic Science International, vol. 173, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Bitanyi, G. Bjørnstad, E. M. Ernest et al., “Species identification of Tanzanian antelopes using DNA barcoding,” Molecular Ecology Resources, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 442–449, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. X. Huang and A. Madan, “CAP3: a DNA sequence assembly program,” Genome Research, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 868–877, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. A. Hall, “BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT,” Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, vol. 41, pp. 95–98, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. F. Altschul, W. Gish, W. Miller, E. W. Myers, and D. J. Lipman, “Basic local alignment search tool,” Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 215, no. 3, pp. 403–410, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. C. Edgar, “MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1792–1797, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Gouy, S. Guindon, and O. Gascuel, “SeaView version 4: a multiplatform graphical user interface for sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree building,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 221–224, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Guindon and O. Gascuel, “A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood,” Systematic Biology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 696–704, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Ogden, N. Dawnay, and R. McEwing, “Wildlife DNA forensics—bridging the gap between conservation genetics and law enforcement,” Endangered Species Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 179–195, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Srinivasan, D. Sedmak, and S. Jewell, “Effect of fixatives and tissue processing on the content and integrity of nucleic acids,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 161, no. 6, pp. 1961–1971, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus