Intestinal Parasites Infection in Children with Cancer in Ahvaz, Southwest IranRead the full article
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Modeling the Effects of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions on COVID-19 Spread in Kenya
Mathematical modeling of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Kenya is presented. A susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) compartment model is considered with additional compartments of hospitalized population whose condition is severe or critical and the fatality compartment. The basic reproduction number () is computed by the next-generation matrix approach and later expressed as a time-dependent function so as to incorporate the NPIs into the model. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is solved using fourth-order and fifth-order Runge–Kutta methods. Different intervention scenarios are considered, and the results show that implementation of closure of education institutions, curfew, and partial lockdown yields predicted delayed peaks of the overall infections, severe cases, and fatalities and subsequently containment of the pandemic in the country.
Study of Lophomonas blattarum Infection in Kidney Transplant Patients in Mashhad City, Iran
Background. Lophomonas blattarum is a flagellate protozoan which is known as an emerging parasite in the human respiratory system. Organ transplant recipients are considered as immunocompromised patients due to prescription of immunosuppressive drugs. This group of patients is susceptible to opportunistic infection as well as lophomoniasis. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestation of pulmonary infections caused by L. blattarum in kidney transplant recipients. Methods. This is a case-control study including 50 kidney transplant recipients and 50 controls. The sputum samples were collected from 50 kidney transplant recipients with bronchopulmonary infection signs suspected to lophomoniasis admitted in Montaserieh and Imam Reza hospitals, Mashhad, Iran. 50 healthy individuals as the control group were matched for sex and age with case ones. The consent form, checklist, and required information were provided for each patient. All samples were microscopically examined for the flagellated protozoan, L. blattarum, using direct smear. Results. Among 50 kidney transplant recipients suspected to lophomoniasis, L. blattarum was identified in sputum samples of 4 (8%) participants of the case group including one female and three males. None of the samples were positive among the control group. Symptoms in patients of this study were high fever (4 out of 4 patients), cough (3 out of 4 patients), and dyspnea (2 out of 4 patients). Three patients showed a positive response to metronidazole treatment. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that L. blattarum should be considered as a pathogenic agent in kidney transplant recipients. It is necessary to examine sputum samples in posttransplant pneumonia patients, especially in those resistant to antibacterial therapy.
Nasal Carriage by Staphylococcus aureus among Healthcare Workers and Students Attending a University Hospital in Southern Brazil: Prevalence, Phenotypic, and Molecular Characteristics
Background. Staphylococcus aureus can asymptomatically colonize the human anterior nares and skin, and nasal colonization by this bacterium represents a potential risk for development of invasive infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage among healthcare workers and students attending a university hospital and to characterize the isolates phenotypically and molecularly. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed with 324 volunteers. Cultures from nasal samples were obtained and S. aureus isolates were characterized according to their antimicrobial susceptibility profile and four virulence factors-encoding genes. MRSA isolates were characterized regarding their oxacillin/cefoxitin susceptibility, SCCmec, and REP-PCR types. Potential risks for S. aureus and MRSA carriage were analyzed. Results. Of 324 nasal samples, 42.9% were identified as S. aureus, of which 28.8% were MRSA. S. aureus carriers were significantly higher in males and students (OR = 2.898, 95%CI 1.553–5.410); however, no variables were associated with MRSA carriage. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and the highest rate of resistance was observed for penicillin (90.6%). All isolates harbored the coa gene, and 97.8%, the icaA gene; 15.8% and 6.5% were positive for tst and lukS-PV/lukF-PV genes, respectively. Among MRSA isolates, 45% carried the mecA gene but were phenotypically susceptible to oxacillin/cefoxitin; two harbored the tst and none had lukS-PV/lukF-PV genes. All MRSAs were distributed into six SCCmec types and type I (62.5%) was the most frequent. REP-PCR typing identified four main clusters among MRSA isolates. Conclusion. High prevalence of healthcare workers and students were identified as nasal carriers of S. aureus exhibiting different antimicrobial resistance profiles, including mecA-positive oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (OS-MRSA) and the presence of virulence-encoding genes. Both cohorts may represent potential sources for the emergence of a successful S. aureus strain highly adapted to the hospital environment.
COVID-19 Modelling: The Effects of Social Distancing
The purpose of this article is to reach all those who find it difficult to become well informed about the steps that have been implemented to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic and to spark discussion and thought. Here, we use simple stochastic simulations to evaluate different approaches taken to manage the crisis. We then compare these results with updated data of what really happened in the UK and in South Africa. The initial simulations aligned well with how the pandemic has evolved throughout five months following lockdown. The models are, as expected, not fully accurate, but exact enough to be used as a guideline to the evolution of the disease in both high- and middle-income countries. This is shown through simulations formed by an open source code, which allows evaluation of the outcomes from different intervention scenarios or conditions.
Level of Knowledge and Risk Factors for Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Mining Area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Aiming to optimize and adjust leishmaniasis prevention and control measures for the resident population of Pains, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a structured questionnaire containing conceptual questions and questions about household characteristics was used to evaluate knowledge level and exposure risk. A total of 396 individuals were interviewed revealing unscientific and fragmented knowledge about the subject for most of the studied population. The female population was found to have 1.68 times more chance of knowing about the disease than the male population, while highly educated individuals were found to have 2.92 times more chances of knowing about leishmaniasis compared to basic educated individuals. All of the respondents reported the presence of, at least, one risk factor, while ages ≥40 years were considered a protective factor compared to younger ages, indicating that older individuals are more likely to recognize risks and protect themselves against leishmaniasis. These results will contribute to the production of didactic materials for the population with respect to their previous knowledge and will provide a basis for control and prophylactic measures.
Fungal Infection among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Individuals in Nepal
Background. Low immunity, comorbid clinical conditions, and metabolic disorders may be the underlying factors that determine the severity of infection. Diabetes increases the risk of infection and multiple organ damage. In Nepal, the actual burden of fungal infections has not been estimated or is in a limited progress. This study aimed to investigate the status of fungal infection in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Materials and Methods. A total of 670 samples were collected from 134 participants. From each participant, five samples were collected from different sites like an oral wash, toe swab, midstream urine, hair shaft, and nail scrapings. All samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Gram stain was used to observe yeast cells and lactophenol cotton blue stain was used for hyphae. Chlamydospore production by Candida species was observed in cornmeal agar medium by Dalmau Plate method. Candida species isolated were characterized by germ-tube test and differentiated using CHROM agar Candida medium. Candida species isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Results. Overall, 19.4% of the samples showed fungal growth. The prevalence of fungal infection was higher in diabetic (34.0%) than nondiabetic individuals (4.7%). Fungal growth was found to be higher in oral wash followed by toe, urine, hair, and nail samples. Predominant fungi were Candida species (57.5%), Aspergillus species (28.4%), and Trichophyton species (10.7%). Oral wash, toe, and urine samples in diabetics had a significantly higher fungal prevalence when compared between both groups, value < 0.05. In Candida isolates, higher resistance was seen against fluconazole 36.8% and ketoconazole 28.9%, whereas other drugs showed low resistance. Conclusion. Diabetic participants are more susceptible to fungal infection than the nondiabetics. Overall, Candida species and Aspergillus species are highly predominant fungi. Candida species are highly resistant to fluconazole and ketoconazole.